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I had the same problem (although mine doesn't have ATI graphics, just the Intel Haswell), and found that an upgrade to Jessie sorts out both the graphics and wifi. To upgrade, point your sources at the testing version (Jessie) and dist-upgrade cp /etc/apt/sources.list{,.bak} sed -i -e 's/ \(stable\|wheezy\)/ testing/ig' /etc/apt/sources.list apt-get update ...


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bash --noprofile --norc <<ALIAS $(alias) exec </dev/tty ALIAS That should do it if you're running the bash --noprofile... bit from a bash that knows your aliases. Else you could do as @WilliamEverett suggests (which, as I believe, is ultimately the better way to go). One way to facilitate this is: alias >~/.aliasrc { cp ~/.bashrc ...


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You could make your .bashrc more modular (for example by sourcing a .aliasrc with your aliases) and then have your custom environment only source the modules that you specify for that environment.


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You could put if [ -f ~/.Mayur_Patel_special ] then . ~/.Mayur_Patel_special rm ~/.Mayur_Patel_special fi at the end of your .bashrc, and then have your application create that file.  And, obviously, run bash without the --noprofile and --norc options.  If there might be multiple instances of this running concurrently, make the filename unique; ...


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There are very few files that absolutely must be different between two machines, and need to be regenerated when cloning: The host name /etc/hostname. The SSH host keys: /etc/ssh_host_*_key* or /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*_key* or similar location. The random seed: /var/lib/urandom/random-seed or /var/lib/random-seed or similar location. Anything else could be ...


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If the user running the crontab command is vagrant, and the directory where the output is written to is owned by root, and has permissions 755, it can not be written to. sudo chown vagrant /var/backup/all may fix that. To check whether that's the problem, try writing to a file in /tmp instead. But there is another problem: A command like mysqldump mydb | ...


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Of course, the error is that you don't have a mailer (sendmail,postfix, etc) implemented and active. That being said your other problem is that the >/dev/null 2>&1 ONLY only applies/associates to the LAST command in this case gzip. Thus there must be some type of output going to STDERR for your mysqldump. The correct way to do what I think you want ...


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LESS uses several environment variables to control colors based on termcap library. The list of variable is the following: export LESS_TERMCAP_mb=$'\E[6m' # begin blinking export LESS_TERMCAP_md=$'\E[34m' # begin bold export LESS_TERMCAP_us=$'\E[4;32m' # begin underline export LESS_TERMCAP_so=$'\E[1;33;41m' # begin standout-mode - ...


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you need to assign the ipaddress using following format Here 192.168.1.1 is my Router (gateway) auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 192.168.1.1 network 192.168.1.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 dns-nameserver 192.168.1.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 you have to edit the resolv.conf for accessing the ...


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This type of unit file is an Instantiated Service - more details are available here The following is the unit file for openvpn on CentOS 7: [Unit] Description=OpenVPN Robust And Highly Flexible Tunneling Application On %I After=syslog.target network.target [Service] PrivateTmp=true Type=forking PIDFile=/var/run/openvpn/%i.pid ExecStart=/usr/sbin/openvpn ...


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I think the Debian OpenVPN setup with systemd is currently a tad bit broken. To get it to work on my machines I had to: Create /etc/systemd/system/openvpn@.service.d (the directory), and place in it a new file with this:[Unit] Requires=networking.service After=networking.serviceI called my file local-after-ifup.conf. It needs to end with .conf. (This is ...


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You need to create the service file by enabling openvpn@<configuration>.service. For example, if the configuration file is /etc/openvpn/client.conf, the service name is openvpn@client.service. From the Arch Wiki


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The program etckeeper does manage /etc in git, you just need to change the default vcs backend from bzr to git in /etc/etckeeper/etckeeper.conf. It is installed by default in Ubuntu Linux, and handles the common cases of when to commit automatically. It commits before installing packages in case there are uncomitted manual changes, and after installing.


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You could use make oldconfig. After you copy the 2.6 .config file, this make option will prompt to you for options in the current kernel source that are not found in the file. However, you will have to deal with choosing options out of the context, being difficult to give the right answer Further reading: What does “make oldconfig” do exactly - Linux ...


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Officially that is not recommended but you can do it and that's what I do. You have to go through the build menus very carefully. Things change (especially from 2.6 to 3.2), and without review you might end up with a lot of features and drivers you don't need. I don't know of a migration guide but for kernel tweaking you may want to look at Linux Kernel ...


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Short answer From the Debian wiki page dedicated to D-I preseed : Do not work off a debconf-get-selections (--installer) generated preseed.cfg but get the values from it and modify the example preseed file with them. The preseed example file provided by Debian should be enought to start but you can find a lot of other preseed files provided by ...


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Files under /usr are meant to be under the control of the package manager (except for files under /usr/local). Configuration files that the system administrator may modify live in /etc. This is part of the traditional unix directory structure and codified for Linux in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. The recommendation in the Arch Wiki to edit files under ...


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Since you can't guarantee that an SSH connection (being TCP) will remain alive once one end stops sending ACKs to received packets, I personally use http://www.harding.motd.ca/autossh/ to restart all my SSH connections almost as soon as I unsuspend. Since GNU Screen will be in use on the server side, re-attaching gets me to where I was before. You can have ...


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I'll answer that in a more general way - looking a bit at the whole "Unix learning experience". In your example you use two tools, and see the language is similar. It just unclear when to use what exactly. Of course you can expect there is a clear structure, so you ask us to explain that. The case with the space around = is only and example - there are ...


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Some programs offer a check of the configuration file, for example: postfix check Otherwise you could get the original config files from the repositories and compare them with diff to the current.


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.bashrc is nothing more than a config file for bash, just like my.cnf, php.ini, httpd.conf or a launchd plist. Each has their own syntax, ranging from the no-space assignment of bash to the XML tag soup of launchd (there's also a binary version :-O ) There are no firm conventions, and you have already discovered the Prime Directive of Unix: Read The Fine ...


2

The spaces around = sign is always problem when you do an assignment in bash. There is no exception here, you must remove all spaces around = if you want to get a valid simple assignment (no expansion, no arithmetic, no array assignment)in bash. For config file, because each software has its own parser to parsing its config file, bash has no relationship. ...


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Bash will interpret a line that has text followed by a = as an assignment to a variable, but it will interpret a line that has text followed by a space as a command with an argument. var=assignment vs command =argument Bash scripts work on the principle that everything in the script is as if you have typed it into the command line. In configuration files ...


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I would say that when you use a bash command that means attribute a value to something, the sign = means assigment and you need to remove spaces around or it will attribute the space also. While in a config file where = is to seperate a key from a value, you can or not put a space without problem and it will not take any special meaning.



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