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1

The root directory is just what it says: your root directory, i.e /. If you are running grub-install while booted from some other medium and have your normal root directory mounted somewhere other than /, then you want to specify this argument to point it to your root directory.


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I'm not too much of an expert about GRUB, but as far as I know, the root directory for GRUB it's the directory where you can install a working GRUB when you have started your system in recovery mode: grub-install –-root-directory=/test/kernelimage /dev/sda Here the root directory contains an image of the Linux kernel to boot, and must also contain a ...


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If you install Grub to a partition, nothing is modified outside that partition. In particular, the MBR (if the disk has classical DOS partitions) is not modified. If you do that, Linux can only be booted if the bootloader in the BIOS or UEFI knows where to look for it. The reason to install Grub on a partition is when you already have another bootloader in ...


1

“vmlinuz” as a format name does mean “gzipped vmlinux file which got stripped of all its symbols”. However, as a file name, vmlinuz is often used for any kernel image which is in a compressed format that a bootloader supports, such as the zimage format or the bzimage format. The name vmlinuz is popular on x86 distributions, regardless of the actual format of ...


-1

Quoted from About.com: PC Support > C > CMOS What is CMOS? CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) is the term usually used to describe the small amount of memory on a computer motherboard that stores the BIOS settings.Most talk of CMOS involves clearing CMOS, which means to reset the BIOS settings to their default levels, a really easy task that's ...


0

So the problem is, grub is likely to assume that because /boot is on /dev/md0 and (hd0) is indicated as /dev/md0 in device.map that the MBR should go on /dev/md0, and then you see an error message because /dev/md0 does not have an MBR. The good news, is that is the the original MBR and bootstrap are still on your bios boot device (probably /dev/sda), which ...


1

One way to do this is to use cron. On Debian-based systems (and probably others, but I'm not sure which) you can use the @reboot directive to run a command each time the system reboots. Run crontab -e and add this line: @reboot /path/to/your/script.sh That, however, will not guarantee that the script will run after xfce4 since it will be executed when the ...


0

In fact it seems that the system was more affected that the log was saying! maybe because of the dev folder, maybe symlinks... don't know but after crawling forums etc and trying folder by folder, I finally saved the server with for package in $(rpm -qa); do rpm --setperms $package; done A special thx for @Gilles and his superb answer A special NO Thx! ...


0

Since you were running a recovery software when the machine crashed. You might have corrupted your system files. Enter in a tty ^+⌥+F2. If you can not, power on your computer, and when it gives you a list of boot options, press e. Now use the arrow keys and find the bit that says rgba quiet and change it text 3 then press F10. Now it will boot into text ...


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Try booting your system into single user mode. Google that it is not very hard. If it doesn't work for your current kernel, keep trying with any other kernels listed. If your server has a software problem and it cannot be booted into single user mode on any kernel, the server is really hosed and you may need to reinstall. If you can get in with single ...


2

Could you add the mount command to /etc/fstab instead of doing it with a script? As for the second part, rc.local is run by root by default, so if you aren't taking steps to run as nass you will be mounting the NFS share as /root/sg. If you want it to run as a different user from rc.local you would have to do something like su nass -c ...


3

I got the answer. At this line: linux /vmlinuz-3.13.0-32-generic root=/dev/mapper/ubuntu-vg-root ro append single and it becomes to linux /vmlinuz-3.13.0-32-generic root=/dev/mapper/ubuntu-vg-root ro single Then press Ctrl + x. You will goes into single user mode. To make this permanent, you need to edit /etc/default/grub and change this line: ...


0

This happens because the prefix variable, which is hardcoded in the core.img image by grub-install doesn't match your partition layout anymore. You can temporarily override this variable manually and load GRUB once by running the following commands in the rescue shell : set prefix=(hd0,1)/boot/grub insmod normal normal The prefix should be the path to ...


0

You could give a try to boot-repair-disk to have it repair your GRUB. It has worked very well for me in the past.


2

You should be able to restore permissions from a root shell, if you manage to start one. You should be able to get a root shell by logging in as root on the console. At this point, depending on your configuration, you may or may not be able to gain root access from an ordinary account with su or sudo, and you probably won't be able to log in under any ...


0

Given EXT4 is journaled, it's unlikely that you lost any data in the process. Having orphaned inodes after an abnormal shutdown is normal (see Serverfault) so those inodes are probably related to temporary files that won't give you much back if you were able to recover them. In short, you probably could, but it's unlikely you'd want them.


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Btrfs isn’t too much stable to be used as deafult file-system. Most Linux distributions, probable all, are still using ext4 as primary file-system. So, you can completely remove it from your computer. Try the given command: sudo apt-get purge btrfs-tools This command will remove btrfs-tools from your computer. You may need to wait some minutes to complete ...


2

The dependency graph in systemd is only kept in memory. There is no (binary) on-disk cache of loaded units or their properties whatsoever. But it seems that this have bad influence on performance. The unit files are completely re-read and the dependency graph is completely recalculated every time you issue systemctl daemon-reload or call an equivalent ...


0

It loads all the unit files from two specific paths (usually /usr/lib/systemd/system and /etc/systemd/system). Calculating dependencies is VERY fast in systemd. It has a main target defined, such as the multi-user.target which runs after other targets such as basic.target but which in the same time wants some units that are actually symlinks in the ...


8

Beside the meaning of the ESP(EFI System Partition), is really just any partition formatted with one of the UEFI spec-defined variants of FAT and given a specific GPT partition type to help the firmware find it. This way, all EFI executables will be stored at one place, and "chainload" the Operating System specific loader or other EFI executables The steps ...


1

Via Wikipedia: ESP (EFI System Partition) contains the boot loader programs for all installed operating systems (which are contained in other partitions on the same or other storage device), device driver files for devices present in a computer that are used by the firmware at boot time, system utility programs that are intended to be run before ...


0

I am the author of https://github.com/0xbb/gpu-switch and I may can help you. If you want to use the IGP in the Macbook Pro 11,3 (Late 2013) you either need: a patched bootloader with the apple_set_os command. Grub (precompiled: http://andreas.heider.io/gmux/2013/grub-apple-set-os.tar.bz2) a patched kernel (see your link) otherwise the EFI will turn ...


0

As you already mentioned you're using W8.1 Some things you might have a look at: SecureBoot AHCI General Problems / Usage for (Linux)/Ubuntu with newer hardware-> UEFI Troubleshooting


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First, try to run update-grub If that does not work - try: gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub should show something like: GRUB_DEFAULT=0 GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=0 GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT_QUIET=true GRUB_TIMEOUT=10 You can change GRUB_TIMEOUT=10 to however long you want grub to showup. Then, save the file and run update-grub again


3

The problem here is that by default Arch boots up with kernel modesetting for the display (and console), using the open source nouveau driver. It seems that the driver included in this kernel doesn't support your graphics chipset, and rather than fallback, it simply gives you no console display. To disable kernel modesetting you can edit the boot options in ...


0

You might try adding -term xterm to the "setterm" line in your .profile So, for example, setterm -blength 0 goes to: setterm -term xterm -blength 0


0

The issue I'm having is that I can get to the first screen and I tried all of the options but after the OS is loaded it goes to a black screen.. And the desktop never shows. I let it sit there all day and I still got nothing.. The tools I used to put Kali on a USB drive is called Rufus 1.4.1 I'm using an HP laptop running Windows 8 that was updated to ...


0

If you can access the U-Boot command line console, you can enter printenv to see U-Boot's environment variables. Some of these variables define the commands that are run at boot time - beginning with bootcmd. Based on the output you've provided, it appears U-Boot is trying different load commands for different filesystems - for example, ext2load vs ...


3

I'm assuming you are using a Debian/Ubuntu based system as they do not automatically remove older kernels, whereas Fedora and family do. List all your installed kernels with: dpkg -l | grep linux-image You'll get a list of all packages. Decide which ones you want to keep and remove the others: sudo apt-get autoremove linux-image-a.b.c linux-image-x.y.z ...


1

Maybe I can help you. Instead of pressing the enter-key on "install elementary" press the e-key to edit the code. When the code comes up you will see a line of code that has the words "quiet splash" written. On the end of that line write: nomodeset xforcevesa , and then press the f10-key.


0

Be careful, in your grub.conf, the root option should be your actual root partition, not the /boot/efi. So ensure the grub.conf contains the line root (hd0,8) as it was originally. As your BIOS let you choose CentOS, it means the /boot/efi partition was correctly mounted when you upgraded grub. So now, the only missing step is to tell your BIOS to boot ...



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