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Kernel mode and user mode are a hardware feature, specifically a feature of the processor. Processors designed for mid-to-high-end systems (PC, feature phone, smartphone, all but the simplest network appliances, …) include this feature. Kernel mode can go by different names: supervisor mode, privileged mode, etc. On x86 (the processor type in PCs), it is ...


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"Linux" proper is only the kernel. When we talk about "Linux" as an operating system, it is a conflation of the kernel and all of the other software that is distributed with it in a Linux distribution. The switch between user and kernel mode happens when you make a system call, which is any of the functions documented in manual section 2. That is, if you ...


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This is one of those marginal things where there are arguments for and against adding a progress bar option to cp. The main argument against, is that you may not know ahead of time that you want to know the progress. Ctrl-T/SIGINFO is available on BSD for this purpose, and if that becomes available on GNU/Linux platforms, then there might be more reason for ...


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For some reason you've ended up with i386 cups-daemon installed, instead of amd64. That's why it ends up needing i386 PAM modules... To fix this, you need to remove cups-daemon and re-install the amd64 version; as root: apt-get remove cups-daemon:i386 apt-get install cups-daemon:amd64 If your dpkg architectures are set up correctly you should be able to ...


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After a whole day of trial-and-error, googling, installing and deinstalling endless packages, I found which one was the bad guy: apt-get install libpam-modules:i386 was the solution. So it seems that the cups package in Debian Jessie does not officially depend on libpam-modules:i386 even though it needs it.


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This one is a bit simpler to use and set-up, named args, etc. https://github.com/uudruid74/bashTheObjects


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Does a system call function often but not always have a command or utility in shell? Sometimes. System calls that are useful to expose, are usually exposed. A shell that couldn't change directories would not be a very useful shell. Some of them, like chdir, are implemented as shell builtins, because they can only affect the process that called them. ...


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In the simplest scenario, the so-called DDX (Device Dependent X) part of the X server will identify your video driver and use ioctl calls to initialize it, configure the video adapter and (usually) get the framebuffer address. The framebuffer will then be used for rendering. Here is a much more detailed description of the process. Things will get more ...



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