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10
votes
4answers
1k views

Does POSIX limit the number of directories in the os root?

I'm trying to learn the POSIX standard. When using Unix, I have /bin, /etc, /dev, /media, and usually /opt, but is that standardized or up to your spec implementation? Could there be many directories ...
3
votes
2answers
242 views

What is zImage, rootfs

I am very much new to Embedded Linux. We use poky build system. We just use bitbake linux-imx command to build the kernel. It generates some files zImage, rootfs, uboot and also a sdcard image. We ...
2
votes
2answers
207 views

Why on some Linux systems, does the root filesystem appear as /dev/root instead of /dev/<real device node>in mtab?

I've seen on various Linux systems where instead of the real device node (for example: /dev/sda1), the root device appears as /dev/root, or instead of the real filesystem, mtab says it is a filesystem ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What's the Debian equivalent of Ubuntu Core/Base images?

For Ubuntu I use the Core/Base images as available here: http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-base/releases/ These 'images' are just base rootfs tarballs which can be used with for example rkt. More ...
3
votes
2answers
95 views

How to reduce LVM for root partition?

I am trying to reduce the space dedicated to root LVM since I don't really need it and I am having a few doubts. Below is the output for lvdisplay: # lvdisplay --- Logical volume --- LV Path ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Mount root filesystem from initramfs

It's a common scenario. For whatever reason, the initramfs (OpenSUSE, in case it matters) has failed to find the root filesystem, so it drops you into a rescue shell. I know perfectly well what device ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Patching the kernel to allow booting without initrd

The first answer of 'Why does Linux use an Initial Ram Disk at boot?' states that the initrd/initial ram filesystem is used to provide drivers to mount the real root filesystem. It also says that it ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Add parameters to NFS mount

I try to start Android on device via NFS and TFTP. Everything goes good until Android system starts booting. Something happens with network parameters and connection falls and boot freezes [ 60....
2
votes
1answer
56 views

kernel init without 'root=' parameter

From systemd/fstab-generator.c it follows that systemd treats root= as required kernel parameter, the only configuration source for /sysroot mount. However from kernel/init/main.c and kernel/init/...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Different mount output with and without initramfs

I need to create an initramfs to load a driver to access EMMC which contains the root filesystem. In my current kernel build, the EMMC driver is modular (sorry, can't change this). After the ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

Effects of mounting / (filesystem root) with nodev option

I'm wondering about the effects of setting the nodev option for / mount in /etc/fstab. As I understand it, nodev prevents the interpretation of special nodes, so you can prevent rogue users or ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

How to encrypt a live root fs remotely and unlock it via ssh

I have a Linux Arch system running on a VPS. The rootfs is installed on a LVM partition. I would like to overlay an encrypted container on this partition, then reinstall the rootfs on it and enable ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Why could I need to fsck check the root file system?

This could sound like a rather obvious question, but we all know that soft-checking of any partition is sometimes a need, and we perform it in cases like unstabilities found, lost files or (...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

qemu: boot from cdrom

I'm trying to install xubuntu on a usb flash drive following this quide. The command I'm running is qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=/dev/sdc,media=disk,index=0,format=raw -cdrom ./xubuntu-15.10-...
0
votes
3answers
59 views

how do I copy an .iso file to root in Ubuntu

How can i copy an .iso file to the root directory in Ubuntu? Unetbootin cannot detect my ubuntu.iso unless it will be moved to the root. When I attempt to move it, into the root, the system tells me ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Install Linux on RAID system or outside in separate partition?

I have a Linux box with 4 HDDs which I will configure as RAID5. Should I install Linux rootfs on a partition ontop of the RAID or should I first build a partition on one of the bare disks and then ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

No space left to free up on rootfs partition to upgrade kernel

I want to upgrade Linux kernel from 3.16 to 4.3. Unfortunately when I run aptitude install linux-image-4.3.0-1-amd64 installation fails due to no space on rootfs partition. 117MB left, 174MB needed. ...
2
votes
1answer
278 views

Cannot install packages using dnf in Fedora 22 on ARM platform

I have installed Fedora 22 (using rootfs) on an Android 5.0 device with ARMv7 processor using GNURoot app. This is working OK. All commands in the rootfs execute OK. However, I have a problem with dnf....
0
votes
1answer
34 views

How does JetBrains PyCarm IDE put files into directories outside of ~/ despite being run without sudo?

PyCharm is a lovely Python IDE by JetBrains that can be downloaded here. I have downloaded the free community edition, extracted (with sudo) it into /opt/jetbrains/pycharm and run (without sudo) /opt/...
0
votes
1answer
304 views

Remount linux filesystem from ro to rw [duplicate]

I need to remount my linux filesystem from ro to rw. But nothing gonna work. I will be very grateful if someone help me. # mount /dev/mtdblock3 on / type squashfs (ro) proc on /proc type proc (rw) ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

Can I install GNU/Linux on a FAT drive?

Out of curiosity, is this possible nowadays? I remember some old Slackware versions did support FAT root partition but I am not sure if this is possible with modern kernels and if there are any ...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

What is the proper way to unlock a root filesystem spanning two LUKS devices by only entering the password once, using systemd?

I have been having a lot of issues getting an encrypted multi-disk root filesystem to boot up reliably under systemd on Debian Jessie while only having to enter the password once. Previously I've ...
1
vote
1answer
216 views

Linux root on F2FS

I have my Linux root on an F2FS USB flash drive. The kernel is on another device accessible by the bootloader. I'm trying to start it with the parameters root=/dev/sda1 rootwait rootfstype=f2fs, but I ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Rezise root partition using other hard disk

I have a hd of 150GB and other of 300GB, both partitioned, the former with a root partition and the latter with some unused space. How can I use the unused space of the second to extend the root ...
5
votes
1answer
209 views

What is the purpose of listing the rootfs in /etc/fstab?

In BuildRoot 2015.08.1 /etc/fstab contains the following line. /dev/root / ext2 rw,noauto 0 1 On my encrypted Ubuntu laptop /etc/fstab contains the following line. /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root / ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

can't boot fedora live medium on my strange tablet

I can get it booting and can see the filling splash. However, my usb drive is attached through the tablet's OTG port which needs DWC3_XHCI to be on, which most kernels don't. Can I re-compile the ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Does Linux still use rootfs?

In the kernel documentation file "ramfs, rootfs, and initramfs" it says Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. I have not ...
2
votes
1answer
366 views

Move root partition to another disk

Below is my df -h output. Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/xvda1 20G 18G 1.2G 95% / tmpfs 2.0G 0 2.0G 0% /dev/shm /dev/xvda2 138G 4.4G ...
1
vote
0answers
124 views

Grub2 and mounting a rootfs

I am trying to boot a machine using a version of the kernel (linux-2.6.32.68 - unpatched) that I have compiled and mount a small root filesystem. I have created a small ext2 file system using the ...
0
votes
1answer
418 views

A Start Job is running for dev-md1.device

Hello everyone I'm with the following error on my CentOS 7 I restarted the server is now the boot time is with this message is already so minimum 40 minutes, what should I do? Please Help-me?
1
vote
1answer
29 views

how to avoid direct/network root login on the system and using some chroot to admin the system?

here the idea for which I seek a solution: I want to have a system with no way to log as root. I want to manage the system (edit /etc/files, (un)install something, etc.) by physically unplug the ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system?

How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system? What switches do I pass to the kernel? Do I need to add any code to the initramfs? I cross-compiled busybox and ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

How to add package on this live distro?

I am working on hand made linux from this article /not sure from which distro it has been made, my best guess is ArchLinux/. I have Ubuntu 14 x64 where I am preparing this live distro using make. ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Why are the first inode of the `/` mounted partition and inode of `/` different?

[~]$ stat -c %i / 2 As you can see in above, the inode for / is 2. But the First inode of /dev/sda2 is 11. [~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

SquashFS+UnionFS as root filesystem?

What's an easy way to to use a union filesystem (read-only SquashFS + R/W overlay) as /? I'm thinking of using a custom boot script as the kernel init= argument. The script would mount the SquashFS + ...
2
votes
2answers
931 views

NFS root filesystem doesn't mount at boot

This is an embedded device with a custom kernel (see below for relevant config). It's an x86-32 machine booting like this: coreboot->uboot->linux. I can mount the NFS share in linux if I use on-...
0
votes
1answer
139 views

Move Root Folders to DRBD

What folders in the root folder ( "/" ) cannot be moved to a clustered file system (using DRBD and probably GFS2)? Would like to setup a basic cluster to increase uptime for our file server, web ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Create mount points automatically in /mnt, even though / is read-only

I have a requirement of changing my root partition to Readonly. After changing / to readonly in /etc/fstab, I rebooted the system. Mount points of USB devices is /mnt. But after above changes USB ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Mounting real rootfs after initial booting using initrd

I'm booting kernel with root=/dev/ram0 on a embedded environment. After initial booting, how can I mount real rootfs present at /dev/mtd3 and make it as the only rootfs. I'm using root=/dev/ram0 ...
1
vote
1answer
287 views

I've moved my root directory accidentally to a folder, can't figure out how to move it back using busybox [closed]

I've moved my root directory into a website folder in /var/www. Have rebooted my server and am now in a Busybox rescue environment where I have found my root files in the website folder that I tried ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

How to transfer a rootfs folder?

I just created a rootfs with debootstrap in a Debian Jessie VirtualBox VM. Now I would like to transfer this to the host, by first compressing the directory to a tar archive, so I can upload it and ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

What is this file: .readahead doing in my root directory?

When I do: ls -a / on Fedora 21 there is a hidden file named: .readahead and it's 104092k What is this file?.... is it suppose to be there? I found this on google: readahead system call on wiki....
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Fault-tolerant iSCSI root fs for Linux

I am in the process of moving some Linux servers onto a virtualized environment with their filesystems mounted from LVM volumes, which are in turn hosted on a remote NAS via iSCSI. I am able to start ...
0
votes
1answer
365 views

Accidentally removed execute permission from root directory.

I accidentally did chmod 770 / which removed all access to the system. I booted to rescue mode, dropped to root shell and tried to chmod 755 /, but I get message changing permissions of /: read-only ...
6
votes
1answer
964 views

what does mount -o remount,ro / actually do (under the hood)

To remount a mounted filesystem to read-only, I can use following command: mount -o remount,ro /foo This is used for example in the shutdown sequence, where root filesystem (/) is remounted read-...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Standard/Common location for cross compilation toolchain

Does a standard or common location exist for installing cross compilation tools? I can easily pick my own location and it works fine, so I'm just looking to find the most ideal location. Based on ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

What is the meaning of the directory specified by '//'? [duplicate]

What is the meaning of the directory specified by '//'? It can be accessed by typing in 'cd //' at the comand prompt. I have tried this on mac 10.9.5 and Centos 6. It shows the contents for the ...
1
vote
2answers
5k views

mount: warning: /etc/mtab is not writable (e.g. read-only filesystem)

Working on my system I noted that the root filesystem is mounted read-only. My system worked for months, today I get this error: mount: warning: /etc/mtab is not writable (e.g. read-only filesystem). ...
4
votes
2answers
936 views

Are Linux drivers part of the kernel or the rootfs

I have been working on a board with an embedded ARM processor. To get it to boot I have to add a bootloader, a linux kernel and a disk image containing the root file system. This disk image is ...
2
votes
1answer
216 views

Free-ing up unused space on a partition that is unaccessible after a mount

Originally I had a 50GB disk where the root / was mounted to a 6 GB partition on it. The partition was running out of room so I created a second partition with the rest of the free space (44 GB). Here'...