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70
votes
11answers
75k views

How to add a newline to the end of a file?

Using version control systems I get annoyed at the noise when the diff says No newline at end of file. So I was wondering: How to add a newline at the end of a file to get rid off those messages?
55
votes
4answers
15k views

What's the point in adding a new line to the end of a file?

Some compilers (especially C or C++ ones) give you warnings about: No new line at end of file I thought this would be a C-programmers-only problem, but github displays a message in the commit view: ...
15
votes
6answers
10k views

How can you combine all lines that end with a backslash character?

Using a common command line tool like sed or awk, is it possible to join all lines that end with a given character, like a backslash? For example, given the file: foo bar \ bash \ baz dude \ happy ...
13
votes
8answers
5k views

Replace string containing newline in huge file

Anyone know of a non-line-based tool to "binary" search/replace strings in a somewhat memory-efficient way? See this question too. I have a +2GB text file that I would like to process similar to what ...
10
votes
2answers
6k views

Finding all “Non-Binary” files

Is it possible to use the find command to find all the "non-binary" files in a directory? Here's the problem I'm trying to solve. I've getting an archive of files from a windows user. This archive ...
8
votes
2answers
27k views

Removing all spaces, tabs, newlines, etc from a variable?

This is the error I am getting and it's failing because of a variable whose value is supposed to be 2 (I am getting this using a select * from tabel). I am getting spaces in that variable. + 0 != ...
7
votes
4answers
27k views

Can sed replace new line characters?

Is there an issue with sed and new line character? I have a file test.txt with the following contents aaaaa bbbbb ccccc ddddd The following does not work: sed -r -i 's/\n/,/g' test.txt ...
7
votes
1answer
667 views

Why ZSH ends a line with a highlighted percent symbol?

I've noticed this on occasion with a variety of applications. I've often thought it was because the output was cancelled early (ctrl+c, for example) or something similar, and zsh is filling in a new ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Replace \n by a newline in sed portably

I'm so confused with GNU sed, POSIX sed, and BSD sed's myriad of options. How do I replace literal \n with the newline character using these three sed types?
7
votes
1answer
515 views

shebang line not working with cr-lf

Why are the shebang parts of the following elementary scripts not working: $ cat hello.sh #! /bin/sh echo Hello $ ./hello.sh bash: ./hello.sh: /bin/sh^M: bad interpreter: No such file or directory $ ...
7
votes
1answer
310 views

Why do *nix filesystems support file names with newlines? [duplicate]

According to this page: File names in Linux can contain any characters other than (1) a forward slash ( / ), which is reserved for use as the name of the root directory (i.e., the directory that ...
6
votes
4answers
849 views

Add a newline into a filename with `mv`

It's a serious question. I test some awk scripts and I need files with a newline in their names. Is it possible to add a newline into a filename with mv? I now, I can do this with touch: touch ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

How to put a newline special character into a file using the echo command and redirection operator?

I would like to create a file by using the echo command and the redirection operator, the file should be made of a few lines. I tried to include a newline by "\n" inside the string: echo "first ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Replace a string containing newline characters

With the bash shell, in a file with rows like the following ones first "line" <second>line and so on I would like to replace one or more occurrences of "line"\n<second> with other ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

No such file or directory but I can see it!

I'm trying to run a python script, on a headless Raspberry PI using winSCP and get the following error message: Command '"./areadetect_movie_21.py"' failed with return code 127 and error message ...
6
votes
4answers
13k views

How to add a carriage return before every newline?

I have a file that only uses \n for new lines, but I need it to have \r\n for each new line. How can I do this? For example, I solved it in Vim using :%s/\n/\r\n/g, but I would like to use a script ...
6
votes
5answers
486 views

Remove backslash + newline sequences

We are having a file in Linux which contains one line per record, but problem comes when the line contains some new line characters. In this case, the backslash is appended at the end of line and the ...
5
votes
5answers
460 views

How to replace a word with new line

I have a text file with following data and each row ends with |END|. T|somthing|something|END|T|something2|something2|END| I am tryig to replace |END| with \n new line with sed. sed ...
5
votes
5answers
286 views

Automatic transformation of newlines in shell variable assignment

This came out of one of my comments to this question regarding the use of bc in shell scripting. bc puts line breaks in large numbers, e.g.: > num=$(echo 6^6^3 | bc) > echo $num ...
5
votes
2answers
921 views

sed: read whole file into pattern space without failing on single-line input

Reading a whole file into pattern space is useful for substituting newlines, &c. and there are many instances advising the following: sed ':a;N;$!ba; [commands...]' However, it fails if the ...
5
votes
3answers
338 views

How can I replace a newline with sed?

I've got text with whitespace (including a newline) that I need to replace. I'd like to use sed, but AIX doesn't seem to support the answers to sed newline questions I found. The version of bash I'm ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

How can I delete a trailing newline in bash?

I'm looking for something that behaves like Perl's chomp. I'm looking for a command that simply prints its input, minus the last character if it's a newline: $ printf "one\ntwo\n" | ...
5
votes
2answers
189 views

How to search for text in a file ignoring newlines?

I'd like to search for text that may be split over several lines in a file. A grep that would ignore line breaks and return the matching span of lines. e.g. I would be searching for is an example ...
5
votes
3answers
252 views

How do I capture stdin to a variable without stripping any trailing newlines?

In a shell script... How do I capture stdin to a variable without stripping any trailing newlines? Right now I have tried: var=`cat` var=`tee` var=$(tee) In all cases $var will not have the ...
5
votes
2answers
534 views

read -a array -d '\n' < foo, exit code 1

If I try to execute read -a fooArr -d '\n' < bar the exit code is 1 -- even though it accomplishes what I want it to; put each line of bar in an element of the array fooArr (using bash 4.2.37). ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Collapsing a stream of multiple lines into one line

I have a file containing a a large number of lines, each of which contains a bunch of numbers which are separated by spaces. I process this data in a pipe in some way, and then I want to collapse the ...
5
votes
1answer
315 views

Cannot cat or grep contents of file

I'm on Debian Jessie. When I open a new textfile with mousepad and save it, then modify it with vim and save it again, I cannot print or grep the contents of it anymore. If I do cat file, nothing is ...
5
votes
1answer
151 views

array[@] output all messed up?

I've got this code: Unix+=("Stock List") while read line; do result=$(wget -O - -o /dev/null "http://finance.yahoo.com/d/quotes.csv?s=$line&f=sl1&e=.csv" | tr ',' ' ' | tr '"' ' ') ...
5
votes
3answers
748 views

Remove trailing new line from 'clipboard' to prevent execution on the terminal?

Is there some way to run whatever you copy to the 'clipboard' through some sort of filter? Ideally to strip out the trailing newline from something you copy, so that it doesn't auto-run in the ...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Carriage return vs newline in vim

In vim, when I opened a file, I wanted to add two empty lines at the end of each current line. I used the following switch: %s/$/\n\n/ Apparently, this does not work, but what does work is: ...
5
votes
2answers
83 views

Elegant way to prevent command substitution from removing trailing newline

I'm customizing my zsh PROMPT and calling a function that may or may not echo a string based on the state of an environment variable: function my_info { [[ -n "$ENV_VAR"]] && echo "Some ...
4
votes
4answers
4k views

concatenate two files without adding a newline

If I nano two files, one of which reads 'this' without me entering a newline, and one of which reads 'is' without me entering a newline, I want to be able to then cat the two files together into ...
4
votes
3answers
753 views

sed fails to remove newline character

I've been using sed for quite some time but here is a quirk I came around with, which I am not able to resolve. Let me explain my problem with the actual case. Scene#1 printf "ls" | xclip ...
4
votes
5answers
284 views

Trying to add a newline to the paste command

Here is the weak attempt at a paste command trying to include a newline: paste -d -s tmp1 tmp2 \n tmp3 \n tmp4 tmp5 tmp6 > tmp7 Basically I have several lines in each tmp and I want the ...
4
votes
2answers
267 views

\n prints an n instead of a newline when using sed in MaxOSX

It's a general problem when I use sed but \n works when I use it outside of sed. This is one example of what I get with sed. I have the file myfile with the following content: 1 2 3 4 5 When I use ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Character count in Unix wc command

When I give wc command on a file with contents given below, it gives the number of characters as 30. Does it include the end of file character? Since including the space and newline there are only 29 ...
4
votes
3answers
4k views

How to bulk convert all the file in a file system branch between Unix and Windows line break format?

Everybody knows :-) that in Windows plain text files lines are terminated with CR+LF, and in Unix&Linux - with LF only. How can I quickly convert all my source code files from one format to ...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

Gedit displays text, but cat tells a different story

I am trying to sort a dictionary from Grady Ward's Moby and have encountered a bit of a problem. When I open it in gedit, I get: abaca×N abaciscus×N abacist×N aback×v abacli×p Abaco×N abactinal×A ...
4
votes
3answers
725 views

How to skip file in sed if it contains regex?

I currently use the following simplified command to remove trailing whitespace and add a newline at end of file where needed: find . -type f -exec sed -i -e 's/[ \t]\+\(\r\?\)$/\1/;$a\' {} \+ As ...
4
votes
2answers
87 views

Verify line endings from a text created by perl script

I am interested in seeing the contents of a text file in hex mode. I have tried :%!xxd and the problem is that I can not really understand which hex code represents each letter e.g. when you use an ...
3
votes
3answers
15k views

Why can't find -regex match a newline?

Why does this fail? touch "$(printf "a\nb")"; find . -regex './.\n.' I also tried these, none of which work: find . -regextype posix-extended -regex '.\n.' find . -regextype posix-awk -regex ...
3
votes
3answers
9k views

Remove ^M character from log files

Remove ^M character from log files. In my script I redirect output of my program to a log file. The output of my log file contains some ^M (newline) characters. I need to remove them while running ...
3
votes
5answers
2k views

Why do newline characters get lost when using command substitution?

I have a text file named links.txt which looks like this link1 link2 link3 I want to loop through this file line by line and perform an operation on every line. I know I can do this using while ...
3
votes
3answers
368 views

Split a returned block of text into lines in terminal?

When I give commands like echo $PATH or which program, I often get a very large block of text consisting of may directories. This is fairly useless, if I am for example, looking to see if there is or ...
3
votes
4answers
72 views

Not able to cat a string from a file under a string of another file

I have encountered a strange issue in concatenating the files using catcommand. I have two files with one string in each of them: file1: ABC file2: DEF Either I do cat file1 file2 or I do ...
3
votes
5answers
5k views

How to detect dos format files in git bash

Git Bash is a nice bash shell you get in Windows as part of the installation of Git. It comes with other typical unix tools bundled inside, such as grep, sed, awk, perl. It doesn't have the file ...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Grep doesn't match carriage return characters

I'm trying to find lines with the carriage return character, but I'm not getting the results I'd expect. I've whittled it down to this proof-of-concept: $ uname -a CYGWIN_NT-6.1 Aodh ...
3
votes
3answers
667 views

Convert newline-delimited list with spaces into arguments [duplicate]

I'm trying to write a script that I can run from the context menu in Caja (a clone of Nautilus). Its purpose is to pass the files that are selected in the file manager to a given program (for example, ...
3
votes
1answer
319 views

Is the last new line on fstab important?

What happens if the last line of fstab is not terminated by a newline? Why do people get a warning when that last line is not terminated by a newline?
3
votes
1answer
805 views

Does input redirection (<) append a newline character?

I was originally of the impression that $ ./myprog moo[CTRL-D] is exactly the same as $ echo moo > cow $ ./myprog < cow But I found that myprog always counts one more \n in the second ...