The ls command lists the contents of a directory.

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83
votes
8answers
12k views

Why *not* parse `ls`?

I consistently see answers quoting this link stating definitively "Don't parse ls!" This bothers me for a couple of reasons: It seems the information in that link has been accepted wholesale with ...
45
votes
6answers
12k views

The result of ls * , ls ** and ls ***

I know using the command ls will list all the directories. But what does the ls * command do ? I used it and it just lists the directories. Is the star in front of ls means how deep it can list the ...
40
votes
7answers
11k views

what does the @ mean in ls -l?

I am using Mac OSX. When I type ls -l I see something like drwxr-xr-x@ 12 xonic staff 408 22 Jun 19:00 . drwxr-xr-x 9 xonic staff 306 22 Jun 19:42 .. -rwxrwxrwx@ 1 xonic staff 6148 25 ...
40
votes
2answers
42k views

How do I do a ls and then sort the results by date created?

In what order are the dated ordered by? Certainly not alphanumeric order. ls -lt sorts by modification time. But I need creation time.
37
votes
3answers
6k views

What does size of a directory mean in output of 'ls -l' command?

What does size of a directory mean in output of ls -l command?
36
votes
7answers
5k views

why does ls -d also list files, and where is it documented?

when specifying ls --directory a* it should list only directories starting with a* BUT it lists files AND directories starting with a Questions: where might I find some documentation on this, ...
35
votes
4answers
9k views

The ls command is not working for a directory with a huge number of files

I had a directory which had around 5 million files. When I tried to run the ls command from inside this directory, my system consumed a huge amount of memory and it hung after sometime. Is there an ...
32
votes
12answers
10k views

What's the most resource efficient way to count how many files are in a directory?

CentOS 5.9 I came across an issue the other day where a directory had a lot of files. To count it, I ran ls -l /foo/foo2/ | wc -l Turns out that there were over 1 million files in a single ...
32
votes
1answer
4k views

Why can Linux show a file name containing character '/'?

The following picture is snapped in a real Linux environment. Why can Linux show a file name containing character '/'?
31
votes
4answers
45k views

What do the fields in ls -al output mean?

The ls -al command shows the following output; -rwxrw-r-- 10 root root 2048 Jan 13 07:11 afile.exe What are all the fields in the preceding display?
30
votes
2answers
83k views

How do I make `ls` show file sizes in megabytes?

What commands do I need for Linux's ls to show the file size in MB?
29
votes
5answers
10k views

Is there any option with 'ls' command that I see only the directories?

Sometimes, I need to check only the directories not files. Is there any option with the command ls? Or is there any utility for doing that? EDIT: I'm using Mac OS X, and ls -d gives me . even though ...
28
votes
6answers
66k views

How to list all files in the size order

I would like to list all files in the order of big to small in size and the files could be present anywhere in a certain folder.
27
votes
4answers
28k views

last time file opened

Is it possible to get the time when file was opened last time and sort all files in a directory by those times?
26
votes
1answer
2k views

Why does “ls *” take so much longer than “ls”?

I have a couple of files in a directory: $ ls | wc -l 9376 Can anybody explain why there is such a huge time difference in using ls * and ls? $ time ls > /dev/null real 0m0.118s user ...
25
votes
2answers
79k views

How to get only files created after a date with ls?

With ls command, does it possible to show only file created after a date, hour... I'm asking it because I have a directory with thousand of files. I want files created since yesterday. I use ls ...
24
votes
3answers
21k views

What causes this green background in ls output?

There are two directories shown by 'ls'. Normally directories anywhere are blue on black background. But the first one is blue on green and impossible to read. Why is this? How to make it blue ...
23
votes
8answers
20k views

List files sorted numerically

I have a bunch of files from log1 to log164. I'm trying to LIST the directory (sorted) in a UNIX terminal but the sort functions are only providing the format like this: home:logs Home$ ls -1 | sort ...
23
votes
3answers
25k views

Find the owner of a directory or file, but only return that and nothing else

I am looking for a command that will return the owner of a directory and only that--such as a regex parsing the ls -lat command or something similar? I want to use the result in another script.
23
votes
2answers
11k views

Output from ls has newlines but displays on a single line. Why?

I think I may be overlooking a relatively fundamental point regarding shell. Output from the ls command by default separates output with newlines, but the shell displays the output on a single line. ...
22
votes
5answers
9k views

What is the difference between ls and l?

I accidentally typed l instead of ls today and found that the command still printed a list of the files in my current directory. Trying l --help brings up the help file for ls suggesting that l is ...
21
votes
3answers
5k views

ls command: what does the first line mean?

When I do ls -l I get this: calico@A000505:~/Documentos$ ls -l total 2020 -rwxr-xr-x 1 calico calico 8559 2010-11-16 11:12 a.out -rwxrw-rw- 1 smt smt 2050138 2010-10-14 10:40 Java2.pdf ...
20
votes
5answers
3k views

Understanding UNIX based permissions and their attributes

I've never really got how chmod worked up until today. I followed a tutorial that explained a big deal to me. For example, I've read that you've got three different permission groups: owner (u) ...
20
votes
11answers
3k views

Linux - command to list files (except ls)

Imagine you were working on a system and someone accidentally deleted the ls command (/bin/ls). How could you get a list of the files in the current directory? Try it. I tried many ...
20
votes
9answers
2k views

Find files whose name is 4 characters long

I would like to find files whose name has only 4 characters. Example, there are three files under /tmp: $ ls /tmp txt file linux Output should only show file because it only has 4 characters.
20
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a reason why ls does not have a --zero or -0 option

This question was prompted by questions about ls' -1 option and the recurring tendency of people to ask question and answers that includes processing the output of ls. This reuse of the output ls ...
20
votes
8answers
46k views

List only regular files (but not directories) in current directory

I can use ls -ld */ to list all the directory entries in the current directory. Is there a similarly easy way to just list all the regular files in the current directory? I know I can use find find . ...
20
votes
4answers
34k views

Why is Debian's root shell colorless?

Are there any security concerns? What is the best way to enable it?
19
votes
6answers
21k views

Sorting files according to size recursively

how to scan a folder recursively and find the largest files in the folder, and sort them by size. I have tried using ls -R -S but it tends to list the directories as well I need to scan the folders ...
17
votes
4answers
10k views

Why does “ls | wc -l” show the correct number of files in current directory? [duplicate]

Trying to count number of files in current directory, I found ls -1 | wc -l, which means: send the list of files (where every filename is printed in a new line) to the input of wc, where -l will count ...
17
votes
5answers
24k views

How to match case insensitive patterns with ls?

I would like to list all files matching a certain pattern while ignoring the case. For example, I run the following commands: ls *abc* I need to see all the file that have "abc" as a part of the ...
16
votes
6answers
13k views

Show only hidden files (dot files) in ls alias

I'm using the command ls -a | grep '^\.' for showing only the hidden files. I added the line alias hidden='ls -a | grep '^\.'' # show only hidden files to .bash_aliases file but this does not ...
16
votes
5answers
27k views

Linux ls to show only filename date and size

How can I use ls in linux to get a listing of filenames date and size only. I don't need to see the other info such as owner or permission. Is this possible?
16
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are reboot, shutdown and poweroff symlinks to systemctl?

In Arch Linux, if I do ls -l in /sbin, I can see that reboot, shutdown and poweroff are all symlinks to /usr/bin/systemctl. But issuing reboot, shutdown and systemctl commands obviously does not all ...
15
votes
4answers
710 views

Why does ls accept duplicate switches?

I'm curious - is there a difference between ls -l and ls -lllllllllllllllllllllllllllll? The output appears to be the same and I'm confused on why ls allows duplicate switches. Is this a standard ...
15
votes
3answers
20k views

dircolors: modify color settings globaly

I understand ls uses dircolors to display colored output. dircolors has default database of colors associated with file extensions, which can be printed wiht the command dircolors --print-database ...
15
votes
2answers
12k views

What does the 'd' mean in ls -al results and what is that slot called? [duplicate]

In Linux, what does the d mean in the first position of drwxr-xr-x? And what are all of the possible letters that could be there, and what do they mean? I'm trying to learn more about the Linux file ...
15
votes
1answer
4k views

What do the symbols displayed by ls -F mean?

I noticed that if I run ls -F on a directory, some of the entries have a * or a @ after them. spuder@ubuntu:~$ ls -F /sbin acpi_available* getpcaps* lvmconf* ntfscp* ...
15
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the number between file permission and owner in ls -l command output?

The output of ls -l command yields the following result: What is the number field between file permission and owner? i.e. what are those 1, 1, 1, and 2? I checked the --help but that doesn't ...
14
votes
7answers
52k views

How to list files without directories, and filter by name (ls options)

I have a directory called uploads. It contains a bunch of files, plus a few subdirectories which in turn contain files. Is there a way I can (in one step) do the following: List ONLY the files in ...
14
votes
10answers
44k views

Show sum of file sizes in directory listing

The Windows dir directory listing command has a line at the end showing the total amount of space taken up by the files listed. For example, dir *.exe shows all the .exe files in the current ...
14
votes
1answer
9k views

ls taking long time in small directory

Running Ubuntu, I open a terminal and do sudo bash cd / ls | head -n 1000 And predictably about 20 directories are returned. However, if I do an ls, and don't pipe it into anything, the ls just ...
14
votes
1answer
9k views

What does the “@” (at) symbol mean on OSX ls? [duplicate]

When I check permission of less files from the command line on my Snow Leopard OSX system using Bash I see -rw-r--r--@ for certain files and for others I just see -rw-r--r-- What does the @ mean here? ...
13
votes
6answers
16k views

How do I list every file in a directory except those with specified extensions?

Suppose that I have a folder containing .txt, .pdf, and other files. I would like to list the "other" files (i.e., files not having the extensions .txt or .pdf). Do you have any advice on how to do ...
13
votes
2answers
40k views

How can I assign the output of a command to a shell variable?

I want to assign the result of an expression to a variable and concatenate it with a string, then echo it. Here's what I've got: #!/bin/bash cd ~/Desktop; thefile= ls -t -U | grep -m 1 "Screen Shot"; ...
13
votes
5answers
5k views

case-insensitive search of duplicate file-names

I there a way to find all files in a directory with duplicate filenames, regardless of the casing (upper-case and/or lower-case)?
13
votes
1answer
4k views

What does a dot after the file permission bits mean?

I performed an ls -la on directory on my CentOS 6.4 server here and the permissions for a given file came out as: -rwxr-xr-x. I understand what -rwxr-xr-x means, what I don't understand is the . ...
13
votes
3answers
501 views

When does `ls -s` print “0”

Of course, the standard way of testing if a file is empty is with test -s FILE, but one of our clients have received a script containing tests like this: RETVAL=`ls -s ./log/cr_trig.log | awk '{print ...
12
votes
6answers
2k views

Why does “ls” require a separate process for executing?

Why does ls require a separate process for its execution? I know the reason why commands like cd can't be executed by forking mechanism but is there any harm if ls is executed without forking?
12
votes
3answers
12k views

What is the Linux equivalent of DOS “dir /s /b filename”?

List all files/dirs in or below the current directory that match 'filename'.