The ls command lists the contents of a directory.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

23
votes
6answers
5k views

what does the @ mean in ls -l?

I am using Mac OSX. When I type ls -l I see something like drwxr-xr-x@ 12 xonic staff 408 22 Jun 19:00 . drwxr-xr-x 9 xonic staff 306 22 Jun 19:42 .. -rwxrwxrwx@ 1 xonic staff 6148 25 ...
27
votes
3answers
3k views

What does size of a directory mean in output of 'ls -l' command?

What does size of a directory mean in output of ls -l command?
5
votes
3answers
345 views

When you type “ls -a”, what is the significance of “.” and “..”?

Whenever you type ls -a into the command prompt, you usually get all of your folders, files, and then you see that the first two entries are . and .. Just curious, but what is the significance of ...
27
votes
2answers
20k views

How do I do a ls and then sort the results by date created?

In what order are the dated ordered by? Certainly not alphanumeric order. ls -lt sorts by modification time. But I need creation time.
2
votes
7answers
2k views

Convert ls -l output format to chmod format

Say I have the following output from ls -l: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 7 17:21 foo How can I automatically convert this to the format used by chmod? For example: $ echo drwxr-xr-x | ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the number between file permission and owner in ls -l command output?

The output of ls -l command yields the following result: What is the number field between file permission and owner? i.e. what are those 1, 1, 1, and 2? I checked the --help but that doesn't ...
66
votes
8answers
9k views

Why *not* parse `ls`?

I consistently see answers quoting this link stating definitively "Don't parse ls!" This bothers me for a couple of reasons: It seems the information in that link has been accepted wholesale with ...
8
votes
5answers
9k views

How to report number of files in all subdirectories?

I need to inspect all sub-directories and report how many files (without further recursion) they contain: directoryName1 numberOfFiles directoryName2 numberOfFiles
1
vote
1answer
616 views

How can I make ls show information about the directory specified only, not info about its sub-files or folder contents?

Say I have folder "foo" residing, the home directory. I want to get some info of it, owner, group, permissions, etc... I then do this to try to get the information: cd ~ ls -l foo Of course it now ...
33
votes
6answers
4k views

The result of ls * , ls ** and ls ***

I know using the command ls will list all the directories. But what does the ls * command do ? I used it and it just lists the directories. Is the star in front of ls means how deep it can list the ...
14
votes
7answers
7k views

List files sorted numerically

I have a bunch of files from log1 to log164. I'm trying to LIST the directory (sorted) in a UNIX terminal but the sort functions are only providing the format like this: home:logs Home$ ls -1 | sort ...
19
votes
2answers
599 views

Is there a reason why ls does not have a --zero or -0 option

This question was prompted by questions about ls' -1 option and the recurring tendency of people to ask question and answers that includes processing the output of ls. This reuse of the output ls ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

What's the difference between “s” and “S” in ls -la?

When I ls -la, it prints many attributes. Something like this: -rwSrwSr-- 1 www-data www-data 45 2012-01-04 05:17 README Shamefully, I have to confess I don't know the exact meaning of each ...
19
votes
3answers
3k views

ls command: what does the first line mean?

When I do ls -l I get this: calico@A000505:~/Documentos$ ls -l total 2020 -rwxr-xr-x 1 calico calico 8559 2010-11-16 11:12 a.out -rwxrw-rw- 1 smt smt 2050138 2010-10-14 10:40 Java2.pdf ...
2
votes
2answers
173 views

Directories are listed twice

I have something odd. I creates some directories using a very simple script : ... create all directories ( running under a user that has the correct rights ) e.g : mkdir -p ...
25
votes
5answers
6k views

Is there any option with 'ls' command that I see only the directories?

Sometimes, I need to check only the directories not files. Is there any option with the command ls? Or is there any utility for doing that? EDIT: I'm using Mac OS X, and ls -d gives me . even though ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

Why are reboot, shutdown and poweroff symlinks to systemctl?

In Arch Linux, if I do ls -l in /sbin, I can see that reboot, shutdown and poweroff are all symlinks to /usr/bin/systemctl. But issuing reboot, shutdown and systemctl commands obviously does not all ...
9
votes
1answer
15k views

How can I assign the result of a command to a shell variable?

I want to assign the result of an expression to a variable and concatenate it with a string, then echo it. Here's what I've got: #!/bin/bash cd ~/Desktop; thefile= ls -t -U | grep -m 1 "Screen Shot"; ...
7
votes
6answers
6k views

What's the best way to count the number of files in a directory?

If parsing the output of ls is dangerous because it can break on some funky characters (spaces, \n, ... ), what's the best way to know the number of files in a directory? I usualy rely on find to ...
8
votes
2answers
265 views

How do I columnate a list of items with minimal width?

How do I columnate any uncollumnated input like ls does? ls is creating an optimized table with minimum width for each row, for example: ls 2 dsao file with space with 5 e g ...
4
votes
2answers
891 views

How do regular expressions differ from wildcards used to filter files

While we use * to denote zero or more previous characters in grep, we use *.c to find all C files when we use it with the ls command like ls *.c. Could someone tell how the use of * differs in these ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Output ls -l size field with digits grouped by thousands?

It is possible to make ls -l output the size field with digits grouped by thousands? If so, how? For instance: $ ls -l -rw-rw---- 1 dahl dahl 43,210,052 2012-01-01 21:52 test.py (Note the commas ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Testing LS_COLORS in zsh

A few years ago I found an interesting code snippet that prints each type of file in its corresponding color according to the colors set up in LS_COLORS. Unfortunately, I can't remember the link ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Sorting files according to size recursively

how to scan a folder recursively and find the largest files in the folder, and sort them by size. I have tried using ls -R -S but it tends to list the directories as well I need to scan the folders ...
2
votes
3answers
337 views

Command substitution in for loop not working

I want to keep all files not ending with .bat I tried for f in $(ls | egrep -v .bat); do echo $f; done and for f in $(eval ls | egrep -v .bat); do echo $f; done But both approaches yield the ...
4
votes
2answers
489 views

Number of lines outputted by ls

When ls is called, it outputs all the files/directories in the current directory, attempting to fit as many as possible on each line. Why is it that when passed to wc -l, it outputs the number of ...
2
votes
2answers
494 views

Working of rm/ls with [0-9]

I am learning the shell commands and came across the short tags eg.[0-9],[[:digit:]] etc.. As a proof of concept i tried deleting all the files with the rm command(i know its not a good practise but i ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

output only file names(with spaces) in ls -Al

I should echo only names of files or directories with this construction: ls -Al | while read string do ... done ls -Al output : drwxr-xr-x 12 s162103 studs 12 march 28 12:49 personal ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

How can number of subdirectories and files be determined from ls -ld command? [closed]

How can number of subdirectories and files be determined from the output of using ls -ld command? I realize that this command only lists the directories.
15
votes
2answers
49k views

How to get only files created after a date with ls?

With ls command, does it possible to show only file created after a date, hour... I'm asking it because I have a directory with thousand of files. I want files created since yesterday. I use ls ...
10
votes
2answers
526 views

Highlight the three last updated files in ls output

Is there any way to overload or wrap the ls command so that it will highlight / underline / otherwise make obvious the last three modified files? I know that I can simply ls -rtl to order by reverse ...
11
votes
6answers
7k views

How do I list every file in a directory except those with specified extensions?

Suppose that I have a folder containing .txt, .pdf, and other files. I would like to list the "other" files (i.e., files not having the extensions .txt or .pdf). Do you have any advice on how to do ...
15
votes
6answers
12k views

How to match case insensitive patterns with ls?

I would like to list all files matching a certain pattern while ignoring the case. For example, I run the following commands: ls *abc* I need to see all the file that have "abc" as a part of the ...
10
votes
5answers
3k views

case-insensitive search of duplicate file-names

I there a way to find all files in a directory with duplicate filenames, regardless of the casing (upper-case and/or lower-case)?
7
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the “directory order” of files in a directory (used by `ls -U`)?

According to the man page for ls, ls -U means: do not sort; list entries in directory order. What does "directory order" mean, and how is it determined? The following test (executed on an ...
6
votes
7answers
11k views

List only regular files (but not directories) in current directory

I can use ls -ld */ to list all the directory entries in the current directory. Is there a similarly easy way to just list all the regular files in the current directory? I know I can use find find . ...
12
votes
1answer
5k views

ls taking long time in small directory

Running Ubuntu, I open a terminal and do sudo bash cd / ls | head -n 1000 And predictably about 20 directories are returned. However, if I do an ls, and don't pipe it into anything, the ls just ...
10
votes
6answers
30k views

How to list files without directories, and filter by name (ls options)

I have a directory called uploads. It contains a bunch of files, plus a few subdirectories which in turn contain files. Is there a way I can (in one step) do the following: List ONLY the files in ...
5
votes
1answer
599 views

What do the symbols displayed by ls -F mean?

I noticed that if I run ls -F on a directory, some of the entries have a * or a @ after them. spuder@ubuntu:~$ ls -F /sbin acpi_available* getpcaps* lvmconf* ntfscp* ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

file block size - difference between stat and ls

I've noticed that when I do a: ls -ls file It provides block count, say 8 blocks. When I do: stat file I notice that the block count is 16, twice the number given by ls. The block size on my ...
11
votes
5answers
13k views

Linux ls to show only filename date and size

How can I use ls in linux to get a listing of filenames date and size only. I don't need to see the other info such as owner or permission. Is this possible?
6
votes
5answers
8k views

Show sum of file sizes in directory listing

The Windows dir directory listing command has a line at the end showing the total amount of space taken up by the files listed. For example, dir *.exe shows all the .exe files in the current ...
6
votes
1answer
575 views

Why could the size of the “dot” file “.” exceed 4096?

Today I found an "empty" directory with a size of 4MB. It had no visible contents, so I tried ls -lah. This showed me some hidden files (not very large). Searching for the reason why the directory ...
6
votes
1answer
720 views

Controlling what files to display

I recently changed my emacs config to hide backup files by prepending a dot to the file name. This got me to thinking - is there a ready way to change the behavior within Bash to use a list of ...
5
votes
1answer
396 views

Symbolic links with ls, mv: forcing the functions to utilize “logical” addresses (remembering the original path)

It seems that for many basic functions operating on symbolic links, the physical path is used by default. However, cd works fine. When moving into a symbolic link, cd remembers where I came from so it ...
4
votes
6answers
866 views

ls with find :: report total size

I am trying to get the total size of files satisfying a find, e.g.: ls $(find -maxdepth 2 -type f) However, this kind of invocation of ls does not produce the total size as well.
4
votes
4answers
415 views

ls command operating differently depending on recipient

How does commands like ls know what its stdout is? It seems ls is operating different depending on what the target stdout is. For example if I do: ls /home/matt/tmp the result is: a.txt b.txt ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Scrolling through ls output without a mouse

In some directories there are quite a few files. When I use ls the output is more than my terminal can handle. Typically I just use one of the following: ls | less ls | more depending on my mood. ...
3
votes
3answers
3k views

How to search and replace text in all php-files in a directory and it's subdirectories

I am looking for a shell script that recursively traverses all .php files in a directory and performs a search & replace of a particular text pattern. The search pattern is quite long ( > 5000 ...
0
votes
1answer
353 views

difficalty to save traceroute output in shell variable?

I need to filter and store traceroute output in shell variable (array). But I am getting some unusual output. As I try to explain in following lines. My present directory is temp, having some ...