The ls command lists the contents of a directory.

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17
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3answers
4k views

How to ls using the long format (-l) while still following directory symlinks?

I've noticed that ls -l doesn't only change the formatting of the output, but also how directory symlinks are handled: > ls /rmn biweekly.sh daily.sh logs ... > ls -l /rmn lrwxrwxrwx 1 root ...
16
votes
4answers
755 views

Why does ls accept duplicate switches?

I'm curious - is there a difference between ls -l and ls -lllllllllllllllllllllllllllll? The output appears to be the same and I'm confused on why ls allows duplicate switches. Is this a standard ...
16
votes
7answers
33k views

How do I list every file in a directory except those with specified extensions?

Suppose that I have a folder containing .txt, .pdf, and other files. I would like to list the "other" files (i.e., files not having the extensions .txt or .pdf). Do you have any advice on how to do ...
16
votes
4answers
19k views

View permission / owner of full directory tree

I remember doing someting like "XXX /home/user/dir/child/file" and it returned the owner and/or permission of: /home /home/user /home/user/dir /home/user/child /home/user/child/file But I don't ...
15
votes
6answers
47k views

Difference between ls -l and ll?

I'm relatively new to programming as a whole and some tutorials have been telling me to use ls -l to look at files in a directory and others have been saying ll. I know that ls is a short list, but ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

No colored output in less for the ls command

If I run ls I get colored output which I find pretty handy for quickly getting a glance of the kind of file. When I try to pipe it to less even with the -r and -R flags the coloring always get lost. I ...
15
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5answers
7k views

case-insensitive search of duplicate file-names

I there a way to find all files in a directory with duplicate filenames, regardless of the casing (upper-case and/or lower-case)?
15
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1answer
13k views

ls taking long time in small directory

Running Ubuntu, I open a terminal and do sudo bash cd / ls | head -n 1000 And predictably about 20 directories are returned. However, if I do an ls, and don't pipe it into anything, the ls just ...
15
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1answer
16k views

How can I use `find` and sort the results by mtime?

I want to use find but sort the results reverse chronologically as with ls -ltr. Is this possible through any combo of flags or pipelines?
14
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2answers
5k views

Why does ls sorting ignore non-alphanumeric characters?

When sorting file names, ls ignores characters like -,_. I expected it to use those characters in sorting as well. An example: touch a1 a2 a-1 a-2 a_1 a_2 a.1 a.2 a,1 a,2 Now display these files ...
13
votes
7answers
4k views

What to use when the “ls” command doesn't work?

I tried to use the ls command and got an error: bash: /bin/ls: cannot execute binary file What can I use instead of this command?
13
votes
3answers
7k views

EXT3: If block size is 4K, why does ls -l show file sizes below that?

If you run ls -l on a file that contains one letter, it will list as 2B in size. If your file system is in 4k blocks, I thought it rounded files up to the block size? Is it because ls -l actually ...
13
votes
7answers
20k views

How to report number of files in all subdirectories?

I need to inspect all sub-directories and report how many files (without further recursion) they contain: directoryName1 numberOfFiles directoryName2 numberOfFiles
13
votes
6answers
13k views

What does the “number” in the owner field of files signify in linux?

I copied many files to my new linux host. I see that all files have the owner and group both set to 515. What does that mean?
13
votes
2answers
11k views

What's the difference between “s” and “S” in ls -la?

When I ls -la, it prints many attributes. Something like this: -rwSrwSr-- 1 www-data www-data 45 2012-01-04 05:17 README Shamefully, I have to confess I don't know the exact meaning of each ...
13
votes
5answers
370 views

How can I find the first missing directory in a long path?

Imagine I have a path that doesn't exist: $ ls /foo/bar/baz/hello/world ls: cannot access /foo/bar/baz/hello/world: No such file or directory But let's say /foo/bar does exist. Is there a quick way ...
13
votes
1answer
7k views

What does a dot after the file permission bits mean?

I performed an ls -la on directory on my CentOS 6.4 server here and the permissions for a given file came out as: -rwxr-xr-x. I understand what -rwxr-xr-x means, what I don't understand is the . ...
13
votes
3answers
522 views

When does `ls -s` print “0”

Of course, the standard way of testing if a file is empty is with test -s FILE, but one of our clients have received a script containing tests like this: RETVAL=`ls -s ./log/cr_trig.log | awk '{print ...
12
votes
5answers
967 views

How to list all files in a directory with absolute paths

I need a file (preferably a .list file) which contains the absolute path of every file in a directory. Example dir1: file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt listOfFiles.list: /Users/haddad/dir1/file1....
12
votes
6answers
2k views

Why does “ls” require a separate process for executing?

Why does ls require a separate process for its execution? I know the reason why commands like cd can't be executed by forking mechanism but is there any harm if ls is executed without forking?
12
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4answers
16k views

What is the Linux equivalent of DOS “dir /s /b filename”?

List all files/dirs in or below the current directory that match 'filename'.
12
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1answer
26k views

Alias for directory listing sorted by time modified in reverse order

When I need to find my recently used files, this command: ls -lt lists in ascending order (by time), when there are lots files, I need to scroll to the top to see needed files, because wont fit in ...
12
votes
2answers
8k views

Why does a new directory have a hard link count of 2 before anything is added to it?

Say I just create directory newDirectory and then I do ls -ld command. I see that the number of hard links is 2. What exactly makes the hard link 2 from the start? Also is the number of subdirectories ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

“ls -lh” reports total size less than sum of individual sizes

Under what circumstances would ls -lh show a total that is less than the sum of the individual files? For example: $ ls -lh /var/lib/nova/instances/_base total 100G -rw-rw-r-- 1 nova nova 4....
12
votes
4answers
5k views

What is the “directory order” of files in a directory (used by `ls -U`)?

According to the man page for ls, ls -U means: do not sort; list entries in directory order. What does "directory order" mean, and how is it determined? The following test (executed on an ...
12
votes
3answers
654 views

How can I make “ls” show dotfiles first while staying case-insensitive?

Create the following files in a directory. $ touch .a .b a b A B 你好嗎 My default ls order ignores the presence of leading dots, intermingling them with the other files. $ ls -Al total 0 -rw-r--r-- ...
12
votes
4answers
8k views

How do I make ls sort underscore characters first?

I like being able to name files and directories with an underscore prefix if it's something I want to keep separate from other files and directories at the same level. On Windows and Mac, for example, ...
11
votes
15answers
3k views

'ls -1' : how to list filenames without extension

ls -1 lists my elements like so: foo.png bar.png foobar.png ... I want it listed without the .png like so: foo bar foobar ... (the dir only contains .png files) Can somebody tell me how to use ...
11
votes
2answers
44k views

List subdirectories only n level deep

Festival stores voicepack data in the following example directory structure: /usr/share/festival/voices/<language>/<voicepack name> What is the simplest one-liner (preferably using ls) ...
11
votes
2answers
447 views

Why does `watch` make `ls /tmp` list contents of $HOME?

I'm trying to watch number of files in my /tmp/ directory. For this I thought this command would work: watch sh -c 'ls /tmp/|wc -l' But it appears to work as if ls had no arguments. Namely, I'm in ~...
11
votes
3answers
8k views

Where is “showing the output of the 'ls' command vertically” documented?

I found out it's possible to show the output of the ls command vertically using the -1 switch: $ ls -1 But couldn't find it in the manual of ls. Is it a secret option?
11
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1answer
1k views

'ls' showing two identical files in a directory

So somehow the command ls seems to be showing me two identical files in a directory. I am certainly not doing something right here. Behold $ ls -Blah /System/Library/LaunchDaemons total 32 ...
11
votes
1answer
4k views

ls everything that is _not_ a symlink

Does ls have a way to show negated conditions like "all files which are not a symlink"? I use the latter a lot in a project directory but other negations would be useful as well. For now, my research ...
10
votes
6answers
8k views

How do I pipe ls to grep, and delete the files filtered by grep?

I wanted to delete some package in my home file, but the filename was too long (google-chrome-stable_current_i386.deb). So, I decided to use the command ls|grep chrome|rm to pipe the files to grep to ...
10
votes
6answers
751 views

How do I display the nth result of an ls command?

I used this command to display the first result of files in my directory. ls | head -n 1 My simple question is, how can I modify this command to display say the nth result? Thanks!
10
votes
4answers
731 views

List files that match a pattern but ignore files that match another pattern?

Let's say I have a directory with files a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3. I only want to match files that start with a but don't contain 3. I tried ls -I "*3" *a* but it returns a1 a2 a3, even though I don't ...
10
votes
2answers
866 views

Highlight the three last updated files in ls output

Is there any way to overload or wrap the ls command so that it will highlight / underline / otherwise make obvious the last three modified files? I know that I can simply ls -rtl to order by reverse ...
10
votes
1answer
16k views

+ or @ mark after running 'ls -al'

In Mac OS X, run 'ls -al' gives me something like this. drwxrwxrwx+ 4 smcho staff 136 May 5 09:18 Public drwxr-xr-x+ 6 smcho staff 204 Feb 1 2010 Sites drwxrwxrwx 9 smcho staff ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is sorting files by access time not working?

I tried to use command ls --time=atime it was working in one directory but wasn't working in another directory. I opened certain files in vim, evince and other applications but after the command file ...
10
votes
1answer
374 views

Include colouring in GNU ls time-style

I know, I can specify custom time format for ls like this ls -lAF --time-style="+ %Y-%b-%d %H:%M:%S" --color=always but I would like to "smuggle in" colors inside the time format. For example, I ...
9
votes
8answers
16k views

Convert ls -l output format to chmod format

Say I have the following output from ls -l: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 7 17:21 foo How can I automatically convert this to the format used by chmod? For example: $ echo drwxr-xr-x | chmod-...
9
votes
3answers
11k views

Using OR patterns in shell wildcards

Contents of my dir are $ ls -lrt total 0 -rw-r--r-- 1 user1 admin 19 Oct 8 12:31 night.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 user1 admin 19 Oct 8 12:31 noon.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 user1 admin 38 Oct 8 12:31 day.txt I ...
9
votes
4answers
34k views

How do I echo just 1 column of output from ls command?

Lets say when I do ls command the output is: file1 file2 file3 file4 Is it possible to display only a certain column of output, in this case file2? I have tried the following with no success: echo ...
9
votes
3answers
5k views

How can I do the equivalent of tail -f with ls? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is it possible to follow a command (run repeatedly)? as one would follow a file using tail -f? I would like to monitor files that are being downloaded to a directory in ...
9
votes
4answers
25k views

How to find a file in the filesystem from the command line?

I'm fairly new to Linux, and I've now found myself in a situation where I'd like to find where a file (with a partially-known filename) is in the file system. I'd like to know how to do this from the ...
9
votes
1answer
20k views

No such file or directory but I can see it!

I'm trying to run a python script, on a headless Raspberry PI using winSCP and get the following error message: Command '"./areadetect_movie_21.py"' failed with return code 127 and error message /usr/...
9
votes
5answers
39k views

ls list files not matching given string in filename

I have a directory in which lots of files (around 200) with the name temp_log.$$ are created with several other important files which I need to check. How can I easily list out all the files and ...
9
votes
2answers
5k views

How can I use ms-dos style wildcards with ls and mv?

I have the misfortune of coming from a MS-DOS background - but at least it makes me appreciate how much more powerful Linux is. I've been working on getting my Linux-Fu up to par, but there are a ...
9
votes
6answers
5k views

Compare files that are in directory 1 but not directory 2?

I'm having trouble with a bash script I want to make I know ls will list files that are in a directory but I want it to list directories that are in directory1 but NOT in directory2, and then list ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

How do I get a long listing for a single directory?

I want to see a long listing for a single directory. When I type ls -lha, I see this: drwxrwxr-x 4 username groupname 4.0K 2010-08-05 09:55 files drwxrwxr-x 7 username groupname 4.0K 2010-08-05 14:...