The ls command lists the contents of a directory.

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6answers
6k views

What does the “number” in the owner field of files signify in linux?

I copied many files to my new linux host. I see that all files have the owner and group both set to 515. What does that mean?
10
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1answer
3k views

What does a dot after the file permission bits mean?

I performed an ls -la on directory on my CentOS 6.4 server here and the permissions for a given file came out as: -rwxr-xr-x. I understand what -rwxr-xr-x means, what I don't understand is the . ...
10
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4answers
3k views

What is the “directory order” of files in a directory (used by `ls -U`)?

According to the man page for ls, ls -U means: do not sort; list entries in directory order. What does "directory order" mean, and how is it determined? The following test (executed on an ...
10
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1answer
254 views

Include colouring in GNU ls time-style

I know, I can specify custom time format for ls like this ls -lAF --time-style="+ %Y-%b-%d %H:%M:%S" --color=always but I would like to "smuggle in" colors inside the time format. For example, I ...
9
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3answers
2k views

EXT3: If block size is 4K, why does ls -l show file sizes below that?

If you run ls -l on a file that contains one letter, it will list as 2B in size. If your file system is in 4k blocks, I thought it rounded files up to the block size? Is it because ls -l actually ...
9
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7answers
25k views

List only regular files (but not directories) in current directory

I can use ls -ld */ to list all the directory entries in the current directory. Is there a similarly easy way to just list all the regular files in the current directory? I know I can use find find . ...
9
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3answers
2k views

Why is sorting files by access time not working?

I tried to use command ls --time=atime it was working in one directory but wasn't working in another directory. I opened certain files in vim, evince and other applications but after the command file ...
9
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3answers
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How can I display octal notation of permissions with ls - and can octal represent all permissions? [duplicate]

After looking at the man page for ls on my system and searching Google, I see there IS a hack of way to use awk or perl to show octal permissions when using ls, but with bash is there anything more ...
9
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4answers
5k views

How do I make ls sort underscore characters first?

I like being able to name files and directories with an underscore prefix if it's something I want to keep separate from other files and directories at the same level. On Windows and Mac, for example, ...
8
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6answers
22k views

Show sum of file sizes in directory listing

The Windows dir directory listing command has a line at the end showing the total amount of space taken up by the files listed. For example, dir *.exe shows all the .exe files in the current ...
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4answers
30k views

How can I list subdirectories recursively?

The obvious ls -dR does not work. I am currently using find /path/ -type d -ls but the output is not what I need (plain listing of sub-folders) Is there a way out?
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2answers
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List all files with the same inode number?

Lets say, when I do ls -li inside a directory, I get this: 12353538 -rw-r--r-- 6 me me 1650 2013-01-10 16:33 fun.txt As the output shows, the file fun.txt has 6 hard links; and the inode number is ...
8
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4answers
9k views

How do I limit the number of files printed by ls?

Is there a way to limit the quantity of listed files on a ls command? I've seen: ls | head -4 but to get head to be executed I need to wait for ls to finish execution, and with directories with an ...
8
votes
1answer
692 views

How do I get a long listing for a single directory?

I want to see a long listing for a single directory. When I type ls -lha, I see this: drwxrwxr-x 4 username groupname 4.0K 2010-08-05 09:55 files drwxrwxr-x 7 username groupname 4.0K 2010-08-05 ...
8
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2answers
2k views

Output ls -l size field with digits grouped by thousands?

It is possible to make ls -l output the size field with digits grouped by thousands? If so, how? For instance: $ ls -l -rw-rw---- 1 dahl dahl 43,210,052 2012-01-01 21:52 test.py (Note the commas ...
8
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1answer
835 views

Why could the size of the “dot” file “.” exceed 4096?

Today I found an "empty" directory with a size of 4MB. It had no visible contents, so I tried ls -lah. This showed me some hidden files (not very large). Searching for the reason why the directory ...
8
votes
2answers
375 views

How do I columnate a list of items with minimal width?

How do I columnate any uncollumnated input like ls does? ls is creating an optimized table with minimum width for each row, for example: ls 2 dsao file with space with 5 e g ...
8
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4answers
4k views

View permission / owner of full directory tree

I remember doing someting like "XXX /home/user/dir/child/file" and it returned the owner and/or permission of: /home /home/user /home/user/dir /home/user/child /home/user/child/file But I don't ...
8
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1answer
903 views

Controlling what files to display

I recently changed my emacs config to hide backup files by prepending a dot to the file name. This got me to thinking - is there a ready way to change the behavior within Bash to use a list of ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Testing LS_COLORS in zsh

A few years ago I found an interesting code snippet that prints each type of file in its corresponding color according to the colors set up in LS_COLORS. Unfortunately, I can't remember the link ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

How can I use ms-dos style wildcards with ls and mv?

I have the misfortune of coming from a MS-DOS background - but at least it makes me appreciate how much more powerful Linux is. I've been working on getting my Linux-Fu up to par, but there are a ...
8
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2answers
793 views

What is the point of ls -f (or, why is this hanging?)

I've got a directory with about 100,000 files in it. ls -f hangs for over a minute. I ran strace, and immediately started seeing getdents, so ls is clearly reading the directory. I also see a lot ...
7
votes
6answers
2k views

Is it possible to remove folder prefix from a `ls` command

I am in a bash script and I want to get the list of all files (let say all jar files). I execute the command ls -1 lib/*.jar and I get the output: lib/mylib_1.jar lib/mylib_2.jar ... Is there any ...
7
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2answers
951 views

Which is more efficient, ls or ls -l?

As I understand, the ls command calls getdents, which returns up to x number of directory entries. Are there any other system calls involved? If I run ls -l, are there any more system calls? I am ...
7
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6answers
8k views

What's the best way to count the number of files in a directory? [duplicate]

If parsing the output of ls is dangerous because it can break on some funky characters (spaces, \n, ... ), what's the best way to know the number of files in a directory? I usualy rely on find to ...
7
votes
4answers
12k views

How to find a file in the filesystem from the command line?

I'm fairly new to Linux, and I've now found myself in a situation where I'd like to find where a file (with a partially-known filename) is in the file system. I'd like to know how to do this from the ...
7
votes
2answers
364 views

Symbol that will show up first in output of `ls`?

I want a folder called DELETED to be first in my output of ls. Is there a symbol I can add to the front that can cause this? I've tried ^ and - and neither works.
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3answers
8k views

What does ll alias to?

ll is a common alias in many linux distros. How can you tell what it aliases to? I've tried checking my .bashrc, but I am not able tell what ll is equivalent to.
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2answers
1k views

Is there a correct way to list the subdirectories of the current directory?

I can find the subdirectories of a directory by ls -d -- */ or ls -l | grep "^d" but both of these seem indirect, and I would imagine that there would be a standard way to find just the ...
7
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1answer
928 views

Why isn't the ls command listing huge filesizes?

In my Redhat Linux, I am getting the following error when executing the ls command. # ls ls: sugar.sql: Value too large for defined data type
7
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2answers
202 views

Different colour for the KiB range in `ls -l`

Is there any sane way to highlight the 4th, 5th, and 6th columns from the right of the file size in ls -l? My intention is to make it easy to read a file size be it in bytes, KiBs, or MiBs. I do know ...
7
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1answer
540 views

Using dircolors, how do I change the color of my subversion folders

Below is a sample of my dircolors file, I want subversion folders (.svn) to be colored, but i guess the extension section only applies to file names. How do i set colors for directories with ...
6
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2answers
586 views

Why “ls” doesnt show the file that “find” discovered ?

(New to unix) In ubuntu When I am up in "/" folder i type sudo find . -name .erlang.cookie and the result is ./var/lib/rabbitmq/.erlang.cookie then when I am on the folder - /var/lib/rabbitmq ...
6
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4answers
16k views

Argument list too long for ls

I get the following error when trying to ls *.txt | wc -l a directory that contains many files: -bash: /bin/ls: Argument list too long Does the threshold of this "Argument list" dependent on distro ...
6
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4answers
2k views

How to get the relative paths with ls?

I'd like to do something like this to move the last two downloaded files: mv ` ls -rt ~/Downloads/ | tail -2 ` . Unfortunately, ls only gives the filenames. How can I adapt the code above? (Before ...
6
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3answers
506 views

Bash autocomplete gives different file name than ls

An incredibly strange thing just happened. Through a serious typo, I entered cp filename.xsl .^?~ Yeah, that's right, dot-caret-questionmark-tilde! Truth is stranger than fiction. It gets weirder. ...
6
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3answers
135 views

Excluding . and .. from results in find and ls

Is there any way to prevent find and ls -l from listing . and .. in their results? I never care about seeing this result in the output, and it prevents me from effectively piping their output to wc -l ...
6
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4answers
8k views

List symlinks in current directory?

This question talks about finding directories in a current diretory. The solution is basically: ls -d */ That's great but how can I easily list symlinks? Do I have to use something like find . ...
6
votes
1answer
7k views

+ or @ mark after running 'ls -al'

In Mac OS X, run 'ls -al' gives me something like this. drwxrwxrwx+ 4 smcho staff 136 May 5 09:18 Public drwxr-xr-x+ 6 smcho staff 204 Feb 1 2010 Sites drwxrwxrwx 9 smcho staff ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

`ls` command does not list latest directory contents

The Linux shell does not print up-to-date information when it comes to ls. For example I use my other processes (IDEs etc) to create some directories. However when I run an ls command I don't see ...
6
votes
6answers
4k views

Compare files that are in directory 1 but not directory 2?

I'm having trouble with a bash script I want to make I know ls will list files that are in a directory but I want it to list directories that are in directory1 but NOT in directory2, and then list ...
6
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3answers
3k views

How do i open all files that are the result of a ls command?

I'd like to open all text files that are the result of a ls command using a text editor. How do i do this?
6
votes
4answers
824 views

ls colors for permissions

Is there a way to control the color output of ls to highlight specific permissions on files? (e.g. write permissions). Any options in LS_COLORS that would do this? (the image above is from Dired+ ...
6
votes
1answer
250 views

why ls reports a huge file and du does not?

When I run arm-none-eabi-objcopy -O binary add.elf add.bin everything seems to be ok. But, later when I run ls -lh add.bin add.elf this is the output I received: -rw-r--r-- 1 david david 2,6G nov 23 ...
6
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1answer
92 views

???? files in ls -l output

I see ghost files in red colour inside some of my directories: [drey@cyan|23:54|~/downloads]ls -la ls: cannot access teamviewer9_linux.deb: No such file or directory total 1318096 drwxrwx--- 1 root ...
6
votes
1answer
144 views

Filetype and dereference when listing directory with LS command

I'm trying to combine arguments to the ls command to list a directory content. What I'm basically trying to achieve is listing the directory dereferencing all links, but showing explicitly that the ...
5
votes
4answers
622 views

Shell command to get all the files from a complex directory structure

I'm looking for a shell command in order to get all the files in a complex directory structure. By complex directory structure I mean that there's a root folder with more than 150 subfolders and for ...
5
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2answers
2k views

How do I find the inode of any directory?

There is literally nothing on google that I can find that will help me answer this question. I presume it is passing some other parameter to ls -i?
5
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3answers
376 views

When you type “ls -a”, what is the significance of “.” and “..”?

Whenever you type ls -a into the command prompt, you usually get all of your folders, files, and then you see that the first two entries are . and .. Just curious, but what is the significance of ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

maximum number of files ls can list [duplicate]

Im using a script to delete old file in a directory, but the script kept showing /usr/bin : Argument list too long It turned out the number of files were 40000 and more, So I want to know what is ...