A locale is a set of parameters that defines the user's language, country and any special variant preferences that the user wants to see in their user interface.

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134
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What does “LC_ALL=C” do?

What does the C value for LC_ALL do in Unix-like systems? I know that it forces the same locale for all aspects but what does C do?
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Why is there no “Euro English” locale?

I used to use the somewhat whimsical en_DK.UTF-8 locale when installing a new system because that would produce (roughly) the locale results I wanted, even though I am not in Denmark. Measurements ...
29
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What charset encoding is used for filenames and paths on Linux?

Does it depend on what file system I use? For example, ext2/ext3/ext4 but also what happens when I insert one of those "joliet" CD-ROMs with ISO 9660? I've heard that POSIX contains some sort of spec ...
28
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6answers
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Why does [A-Z] match lowercase letters in bash?

In all shells I am aware of, rm [A-Z]* removes all files that start with an uppercase letter, but with bash this removes all files that start with a letter. As this problem exists on Linux and ...
23
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2answers
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Does (should) LC_COLLATE affect character ranges?

Collation order through LC_COLLATE defines not only the sort order of individual characters, but also the meaning of character ranges. Or does it? Consider the following snippet: unset LANGUAGE ...
21
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Understanding Unix file name encoding

I have a hard time understanding how the file name encoding works. On unix.SE I find contradicting explanations. File names are stored as characters To quote another answer: Several questions about ...
18
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5answers
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Why is almost every program complaining about my locale?

I'm using Arch Linux, and I've followed the directions on the wiki about setting my locale. Nearly every program that runs complains about the locale - even locale. It looks like this: % locale ...
17
votes
2answers
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locale not found/setting locale failed - what should I do?

I've installed Debian 7 i386 on my VPS (OpenVZ). Everything works fine, except locales - any attempt to install anything shows: [...] perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check ...
15
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2answers
517 views

Bracket expression (without ranges) matching unexpected character in bash

I'm using bash on Linux. I am getting a success from the following if statement, but shouldn't this return a fail code? if [[ ■ = [⅕⅖⅗] ]] ; then echo yes ; fi The square does NOT equal any of the ...
13
votes
1answer
830 views

Command to retrieve the list of characters in a given character class in the current locale

What could be way to retrieve a list of all the characters in a given character class (like blank, alpha, digit...) in the current locale. For instance, LC_ALL=en_GB.UTF-8 that-command blank ...
12
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3answers
646 views

How can I make “ls” show dotfiles first while staying case-insensitive?

Create the following files in a directory. $ touch .a .b a b A B 你好嗎 My default ls order ignores the presence of leading dots, intermingling them with the other files. $ ls -Al total 0 -rw-r--r-- ...
12
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4answers
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How do I make ls sort underscore characters first?

I like being able to name files and directories with an underscore prefix if it's something I want to keep separate from other files and directories at the same level. On Windows and Mac, for example, ...
11
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2answers
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set LC_* but not LC_ALL

I'd like to have a German (Austria) locale (A4 paper size, 24 hour time, yyyy-mm-dd), but an English-language user interface (I don't like poor translations). I figured that the correct way to achieve ...
11
votes
2answers
21k views

ssh and character encoding

When I ssh into my VPS, I have irssi running in screen. When someone sends a unicode character (such as © or €), irssi displays garbage when I use it via the screen in a ssh session. If I connect to ...
11
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5answers
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Weird Stuff in Terminal When I Hit Tab

For some reason, today, everytime I hit tab in the terminal this shows up: cat bash: warning: setlocale: LC_CTYPE: cannot change locale (en_CA) Display all 150 possibilities? (y or n) This ...
10
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1answer
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How do I reduce the size of locale-archive?

I have a need to reduce the size of the locale-archive file on some of my RHEL6 systems. Here is that file on my system: [root@-dev-007 locale]# ls -l total 96800 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 99158704 ...
9
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2answers
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Why are wc -m and wc -c different?

As a C programmer, I was surprised to see that wc -c (which count the number of bytes), and wc -m (which counts the number of characters) output very different results for a long, text file of mine. I ...
9
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2answers
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Output ls -l size field with digits grouped by thousands?

It is possible to make ls -l output the size field with digits grouped by thousands? If so, how? For instance: $ ls -l -rw-rw---- 1 dahl dahl 43,210,052 2012-01-01 21:52 test.py (Note the commas ...
9
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1answer
1k views

Set custom locales in Gnome3 (on Fedora 20)

I've created my own custom locales and placed them in /etc/locale.conf which successfully takes effect if I log in on a virtual console (Ctrl+Alt+F2). In my Gnome3 session those variables are not set, ...
8
votes
2answers
627 views

Set the language for a single program execution

Complete C++ i18n gettext() “hello world” example. sets the LANG environment variable using export before executing the program (Linux): export LANG=es_MX.utf8 ./hellogt Is there a way to set the ...
8
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3answers
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How to convert UTF-8 txt files to all uppercase in bash?

I have some UTF-8 .txt files which I would like to convert to all uppercase. If it was just ASCII, I could use: tr [:lower:] [:upper:] But since I'm working with diacritics and stuff, it doesn't ...
8
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1answer
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How can I change locale/encoding to avoid getting weird characters in terminal?

I have installed tree on my ubuntu box, when i connect to it from Putty and I launch tree i get this : $ tree âââ html.vim -> xml.vim âââ js.vim -> xml.vim âââ xml.vim instead of this : $ ...
8
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2answers
413 views

Are the outputs of /proc/meminfo, /proc/cpuinfo etc always in English?

I am writing code that relies on the output of /proc/meminfo, /proc/cpuinfo etc. Are the file contents always in English? For example, will MemTotal in /proc/meminfo always be MemTotal in all locales?
8
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2answers
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How to change locale environment variable?

I have generated en_US.utf8, et_EE.iso88591 and ru_RU.utf8 localisation files. Now if I try to change any of the locale variables to a ru_RU.utf8 or en_US.utf8, then this does not have any effect: # ...
8
votes
3answers
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Effect of $LANG on terminal

I'm trying to learn how the $LANG variable behaves with gnome-terminal (and its character encoding preference option). I've been using iso8859-1 (latin1) as my main character-set and all my filenames ...
8
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3answers
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How to fix Russian letters in a Wine application when adjusting LANG does not help?

An application with a Russian UI shows question marks instead the most of its text (some elements are rendered ok though). The system locale is English (en_US, en_IE), I've tried Ubuntu ant XUbuntu ...
7
votes
3answers
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What's the default order of Linux sort?

For a long period I thought the default behavior of the sort program was using ASCII order. However, when I input the following lines into sort without any arguments: # @ I got: @ # But ...
7
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2answers
77 views

texinfo: Can I write non-english info files? Such as Chinese, and how?

Most gnu manual files use info, write a texinfo then makeinfo produces info files, it's great. Can texinfo contain non-English characters then produce non-English infos or pdfs? How can I write ...
7
votes
1answer
679 views

Why is bash extended-globbing variable substitution acting at the byte level?

I thought that bash variable substitution and globbing worked at character resolution, so I was rather surprised to see it acting at the byte level. Everything in my locale is en_AU.UTF-8 When ...
7
votes
2answers
207 views

Sort command inconsistent behavior

I want to sort two files but I cannot get consistent results. It seems there are problems with collation but I cannot understand the reason. In sample files separator is a single space: file1: a b B ...
6
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3answers
913 views

Understanding environmental variables in different contexts

Trying to understand the behaviour of the environment in Linux (Ubuntu 13.04 concretely), I've find different situations where setting envirionment variables are used or defined for/in different ...
6
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5answers
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Why does locale es_MX work but not es?

Wikipedia entry for GNU gettext shows an example where the locale is just the lanuage, "fr". Whereas the 'i18n gettext() “hello world” example' in SO has the locale value with both the language and ...
6
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2answers
341 views

Sorting with Perl respecting Locale Settings

Following data needs to be sorted respecting the locale sort order: wird sin wär pêche war Über Uber péché peach There was nor problem by using sort $ sort < data peach pêche péché sin Uber ...
6
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3answers
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localization of man pages on Linux (Ubuntu)

Is there an option to output a manual page in a different language? I don't want to change the computer language completely, but only specific manual pages. For example $ man -English man Man is a ...
6
votes
2answers
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Where has my `uniq` or `sort -u` line gone, with some unicode characters

What is going on in the following code snippet? I'm not getting my expected output. I'd think it was a bug, but it happens for 2 different programs (uniq and sort), so I suspect it is something ...
6
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1answer
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What should I set my locale to and what are the implications of doing so?

This question was stimulated by asking the question Chromium browser does not allow setting the default paper size for "Print to File", and also by a conversation with @Gilles on chat. As ...
6
votes
1answer
321 views

Alphabetizing names in `ls` alias with .files not intermingled

I am currently using the following ls alias: alias ls='ls -alhGkpsq --color=auto'. This results in following directory listing. [03:35] bryson@brys ~ :$ ls total 48K 4.0K drwx------ 4 bryson 4.0K ...
6
votes
2answers
8k views

terminal: non-english characters

I used to be able to copy&paste (or type if I load respective keyboard layout) any kind of characters (eg. é ö ñ ß و 好) in my console/terminal. Now I bought a new computer and it does not work ...
6
votes
2answers
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Some UTF-8 characters not being recognized by grep or sed

Trying to determine all characters in a file. The file sample consists of: a eɪ abandon əˈbændən ability əˈbɪləti able ˈeɪbəl able ˈeɪbl abortion əˈbɔrʃən abortion əˈbɔrʃn about əˈbaʊt above əˈbʌv ...
6
votes
1answer
269 views

Change a locale definition (as opposed to a locale setting)

Preliminary remark: This question is not about setting a locale by changing LC_ALL, LC_TIME, LANG, etc., it's rather about changing a locale definition, e.g. in /usr/share/i18n/locales/de_DE, or ...
6
votes
1answer
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locale definition with French republican calendar

I wonder if it is possible to create a locale definition that would make the C library format the dates according to the French republican calendar. I expect then, for example, run `date' and get ...
6
votes
1answer
8k views

How do I add other language in a Debian system?

I want to add another language in Debian. I have done dpkg-reconfigure locales locale -a C C.UTF-8 en_US.utf8 POSIX ru_RU.utf8 but I don't have any result. root@ai:/home/volkov# locale LANG=en_US....
6
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1answer
837 views

Unzipping certain archives works on Windows but not on Linux

I've asked a few people and just thought about asking it here. We get sent files from an international company for design work in a zip format. Well when I run a script to unzip the files in the ...
6
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1answer
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making a new locale file for Linux, and getting it accepted as a standard

I am wanting to set up a new locale for "Indonesian English" (en_ID) for Linux systems. While English is not widely spoken in Indonesia, it is still used widely in business and the professions. I ...
6
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1answer
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Locale environment variable settings do not take effect

I have a Debian 6 (64-bit) VPS where I cannot seem to get the locale environment variables LANG and LC_* set. (Everything below as root). vps:~# locale -a C POSIX en_US.utf8 nl_NL.utf8 vps:~# locale ...
6
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0answers
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How can I configure Yast to switch languages completely?

I have an installation of openSUSE 11.4 which was installed in German. I started Yast2 (which displayed in German, like "Netzwerkdienste") and switched the language to English under "System" -> "...
5
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2answers
329 views

Man page quotation characters [duplicate]

I've just been looking through a few man pages for a few different commands including grep and ifconfig. I've noticed over a few pages, the content uses a strange syntax to notate what i think are ...
5
votes
2answers
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Language in netstat output

I have a program here, that depends on the output of netstat. More concrete: netstat -apn. Here is an example of a normal output. Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What is the relevance of 'en_AU' in 'LC_CTYPE'? and what is `locale LC_CTYPE` output all about?

First off: Although I can understand the relevance of geographic-region detail for LC_TIME, LC_NUMERIC, and most other LC_* vars, I don't quite see how 'en_AU' relates to LC_CTYPE... Isn't UTF-8 (and ...
5
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2answers
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How to mount an NTFS drive as utf8 over NFS

Question How to mount a nfs share (NTFS formatted fileystem) as utf8 in CentOS 6.5? What I tried mount -o iocharset=utf8 mount -o nfs=utf8 mount -o utf8=1 mount -o utf8 Problem: When I ...