The kernel of operating systems popularly known as Linux, or sometimes GNU/Linux.

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How to fix make error “No rule to make target 'menuconfig'” when building a kernel for Beagleboard?

The aim is to build and install the USB Video Class (UVC) module, via make modules_install. I'm trying to configure the kernel via make menuconfig on Angstrom distribution, running on BeagleBoard-xM. ...
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252 views

Change the root filesystem on an embedded system

I'm using Buildroot to generate an embedded Linux with a kernel v. 2.6.39, which in the end starts busybox. Everything works fine when building with Initramfs as "rootfs". But Initramfs isn't the best ...
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455 views

Why do the data and code segments completely overlap in Linux?

Context: I'm reading "Understanding the Linux kernel, 3d ed", which uses the 2.6.11 kernel. Question: As I understand, the physical address is obtained by translating the linear address, which is ...
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671 views

Why does the Linux kernel report “out of disk space” when in reality it is out of i-nodes

A friend of mine who likes programming in the Linux environment, but doesn't know much about the administration of Linux recently ran into a problem where his OS (Ubuntu) was reporting "out of disk ...
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210 views

How to build a basic embedded linux on a Qualcomm router?

Not knowing the first thing on how to build a minimal linux system on an embedded device, I'd like to get some pointers in the right direction. Generally speaking, I'd like to know what are the ...
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372 views

moving from user mode to kernel mode

I read the following: "All processes begin execution in user mode, and they switch to kernel mode only when obtaining a service provided by the kernel." When it says "obtaining a service ...
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387 views

Compiling Linux and Creating Bootable ISO Image

I have already compiled Linux kernel 3.12.6 but did not install it into /boot as I did not want my hard disk to have another OS. I have the compiled bzImage and I don't know how to take that and ...
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60 views

Make Install Linux Kernel Location Change

I have already run make to compile the Linux Kernel 3.12.6, but when I run make install, I don't want it to install it in /boot (as I don't want another OS on the hard disk). How can I change it so it ...
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813 views

On executable files in Linux [closed]

It is said that in linux, unlike Windows, there's not a clear border between executables and other files. Well, in Windows, I write a C++ program, then it is precompiled, compiled and then linked to ...
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GRE supported in kernel but iproute2 cant create GRE tunnel

Im trying to create IP over GRE tunnel but i get No such device: ip tunnel add gre0 mode gre remote 192.168.152.22 local 192.168.152.21 ttl 255 ioctl: No such device I have compiled GRE support in ...
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167 views

LVM RAID 1 for root [closed]

I have LVM RAID 1 (not mdadm RAID 1, but exactly LVM2 RAID 1) for my root partition. I would like to make my system boot without either of the HDDs where the underlying PVs of the root LVM partition ...
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112 views

SELinux and Trusted OS - can SELinux be confined to hardware level root?

I am exploring on SE Linux and while doing so i found it as an example of Trusted OS. Is it really an example of Trusted OS stack like TrouSerS ? SELinux as per my understanding modifies the Linux ...
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367 views

No usable clock interface found

I just finished installing a paravirtualized archlinux guest on xen. I get the following error when my guest boots: [1.185226] i8042: No controller found [1.1247134] drivers/rtc/hctosys.c: ...
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1answer
482 views

Is there a command to switch to into an existing namespace?

I am using multiple UTS namespaces, each of them has some servers constantly running. I can get the namespace IDs via readlink /proc/<pid>/ns/uts, now I would like to change into a given ...
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671 views

how do I include the qcserial module in the kernel?

I need a kernel compiled, featuring the qcserial module to have support for the Huawei EM 680 model (Gobi 3000). I got kernel 3.11.6 and can find the appropriate source file in ...
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135 views

Which runlevel is best for a Linux (Debian) server (DBMS/SCM)?

I currently try to harden the system and the security of a Debian server running a database and a source code management. I just want networking and me (one user) to be able to login. Which runlevel ...
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68 views

Detach keyboard from the kernel

I am writing a remote controller app for an octocopter and want to use a keyboard as an input device for this app but I don't want it to have any effect outside this app. Somehow I would like to make ...
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2answers
487 views

Location of the kernel binary (when not in /boot)?

I failed to find the kernel binary in the standard location in /boot. I've also searched the whole file system for vmlinux or bzimage find / -iname vmlin* find / -iname bzimage However, this is an ...
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206 views

How to run just linux kernel in vmware?

I am VERY new to Linux and am wondering if you can just boot the Linux kernel by itself or does it absolutely HAVE to be apart of an operating system. My reasoning behind wanting to do this is so that ...
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331 views

Computer wont boot with any media after installing wine on Ubuntu 13.10

Yup. I can boot into anything (meaning the os part), like a cd/dvd, a live usb, or the os on the HDD. i can boot into the first screen, which i think is called the grub selection screen and whatever ...
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171 views

How can I automatically include all firmware needed by selected Linux kernel modules

I have certain modules which I need compiled into the kernel. Some of these modules require firmware, which used to be automatically included from /usr/src/linux/firmware/. However, no new firmware ...
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344 views

How can I run gdb in one machine and run kgdb kernel in another machine?

I want to run two machine: debugged machine: compiled kernel with kgdb option. debugger machine: for running gdb How can I debug machine 1 from machine 2?
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How does udev get device numbers for the devices it creates?

Spun off from a small exchange in chat. One of the primary advantages of udev is that you don't have to worry about major and minor device number exhaustion anymore. But the devices created by udev ...
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IOMMU causing freezes, disabling causes USB to not work

I'm somewhat new to linux, but I'm running a Xubuntu machine that I recently built. Since I started it up, I had noticed frequent freezes, where both the screen (if plugged in) and any SSH session ...
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727 views

Qemu: No file system could mount root (unable to mount roofs)

In Linux, I've created the root file system (rootfs) by following commands: dd if=/dev/zero of=ramdisk.img bs=1M count=4 mkfs.ext2 ramdisk.img sudo mount -o loop ramdisk.img rootfs sudo cp init ...
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Kernel IPsec SA database: FIFO instead of LIFO

When processing an IP packet, the kernel looks into the security policy (SP) database to determine whether it is to be protected with IPsec. If the identifiers of the packet (e.g. IP addresses, etc.) ...
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How do I apply parameters to specific kernels with GRUB 2?

I have several kernels in /boot. One of them, linux-cc, is for heavy computation, i.e., 100Hz, no preemption, no graphics. I've created a systemd target, named compute.target, that only brings the ...
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3answers
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CentOS kernel version 2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 bugs

As far as I updated my centos ver 6.4 to 6.5, the new kernel (2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64) disappointed me! It hangs when I want to plug my external hard to laptop or hangs when I start virtual windows 7 ...
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Installing a cross-toolchain to build ARM binaries on Debian

I tried to install a cross toolchain so I could build Linux kernel on amd64 (Debian testing "jessie") for my ARM system. I have this entry in sources.list: deb http://www.emdebian.org/debian sid main ...
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when update kernels do they close bugs?

I'm not an expert in linux but when I upgrade my kernel to latest stable one which is 3.12.2, does it close all security bugs? How linux security bugs be closed? by installing newer kernel or how ...
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478 views

Asynchronous and parallel algorithms in the Linux kernel

In the Linux kernel configuration, I see these options: config CRYPTO_PCRYPT tristate "Parallel crypto engine" depends on SMP select PADATA select CRYPTO_MANAGER ...
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203 views

Find kernel with specific commit

I have recently bought an Acer Aspire E1-572 with NetXtreme BCM57786 Gigabit Ethernet network card. The problem is that currently I cannot see it in ifconfig, but I can see it with lshw: *-network ...
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How to tell Linux Kernel > 3.0 to completely ignore a failing disk?

I am asking this question here in the hope that some Linux-kernel guru can have an answer. This question has been asked on AskUbuntu and on SuperUser without answers: thinking better, it is really ...
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How does the kernel know how much user addressable memory to set aside?

I was reading up on a rather-dated article on the kernel managing memory and had this question on where the Page Table Entries (PTE) would go into. For this example, the author assumes we are on a ...
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May have broken a Debian installation: 'sudo dpkg --configure -a' won't run

I did an apt-get upgrade on my Jessie vps, hosted by DigitalOcean. As many people know, DigitalOcean provides kernels from the host, rather than allowing the VM to boot from its own kernel image. ...
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bnx2: Can't load firmware file “bnx2/bnx2-mips-09-6.2.1b.fw”

I just compile the kernel 3.10.19 from kernel.org Support for bnx2 is enable. On my server when I try to start the eth0 interface I got the following error : bnx2: Can't load firmware file ...
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373 views

Know which directory is “mount -o bind” by asking the kernel (Linux)

If I do mount -o bind /my/dir /mnt/tmp, I can see the content of /my/dir within /mnt/temp. However, if I type cat /proc/mounts, I get the following output: /dev/sda7 /my ext4 ...
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CentOS boot time screen resolution

I'm trying to set the screen resolution in /etc/grub.conf using vga= on the kernel line: vga=788 I'm using CentOS 6.4. That command should set the screen resolution to 16bit 800x600 according to ...
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2answers
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Is mainline Linux kernel capable of GPGPU programming?

The question is simple, is there general purpose GPU support in the Linux kernel? Let me explain in more details since it's too broad of a topic. By the word "capable" I mean native support. That ...
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419 views

system went unresponsive and had to hard reboot

without not much load on the machine, it suddenly went busy and went unresponsive. it could not respond to keyboard or mouse movement or neither would move to another other tty's. there is some log ...
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2answers
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How does Linux md-RAID handle disk read errors?

There are 2 cases: the read command times out at kernel level (30 seconds by default), the drive reports its unability to read a given sector before the kernel lose patience (the case I'm ...
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105 views

Disallow File IO for a process except for FIFOs

How do you start a process that cannot do any file IO (opening / closing files, creating / deleting files, reading / writing files, etc.), except to read and write to pre-created FIFOs? (chroot will ...
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2answers
983 views

How to use netstat command

My question is what does it mean to LISTEN or ACCEPT on a port as it relates to my example? Example: I have a tomcat server, and It will use port 8080. I want to make sure that port is available for ...
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1answer
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How to make EDID

I read the post here and I tried to make do with what I understood from the post but here are some questions: Where is the /lib/firmware located in for example /usr/src/linux/lib/firmware or ...
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Why linux is a monolithic kernel, while you can load/unload modules (e.g. drivers)? [duplicate]

Hybrid- and Microkernels are flexible, in the way one can add any higher-level functionality as a module, is it not the same for linux kernels? Why then linux is called a monolithic?
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what's the difference between machine hardware name and processor type

I know that my machine hardware name is i686 and processor type is i686 due to my Linux output. But I have no idea why they are the same. I want to know what's the difference between machine hardware ...
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711 views

ttyS1/uart1 initialised but not accessible through /dev/ttyS1

I'm not sure at which level I am having a problem. System is a LeopardBoard DM368 running TI's own SDK / LSP / BusyBox kernel, the core Linux kernel is 2.6.x so using serial_core.c driver model. By ...
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1answer
883 views

Know when a memory address is aligned or unaligned

Im getting kernel oops because ppp driver is trying to access to unaligned address (there is a pointer pointing to unaligned address). Im not sure about the meaning of unaligned address. It means not ...
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2answers
969 views

How can I purge old kernel packages in Elementary OS?

On my Elementary OS system, dpkg reports a number of kernel packages that aren't installed. (I did an apt-get purge on them previously.) I'd like to have them forgotten about entirely, but I can't ...
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error: “net.inet.ip.fastforwarding” is an unknown key

I've been doing some research into improving performance for OpenVPN and I found out about setting fastforwarding to 1 but when I tried I got the error error: "net.inet.ip.fastforwarding" is an ...