The kernel of operating systems popularly known as Linux, or sometimes GNU/Linux.

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m2c : Command not found

I want to experiment on DCTCP protocol. For that I am trying to compile linux kernel version 3.2.18 and include a dctcp patch for that. I am following the directions given here. While I am compiling ...
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minimum time between two consecutive UDP packets

I am interested in developing a C application which sends UDP packets with minimum delay between two consecutive packets. Is it possible to "book" the UDP stack with the NIC hardware from user space ...
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How to upgrade from Fedora 21 to higher stable version with the highest convenience and safety?

I am still working on a Fedora 21 Linux. I know Fedora 22, 23 and 24 already are around. However being a newbie in Linux systems and given the fact that my friend helped me to install Fedora 21 back ...
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How do I enable memory zone reclaim mode on the Linux kernel?

I am running Gentoo Linux Hardened using kernel 4.3.3-hardened-r4 on an AMD A4-5300 APU. To troubleshoot a memory problem I have with my system I need to enable sysctl vm.zone_reclaim_mode=1, but ...
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Show kernel routing exception entries (FIB)

Linux 3.6 removed the ipv4 routing cache (commit). Changelog says: Remove the ipv4 routing cache. Now lookups go directly into the FIB trie and use prebuilt routes cached there. According to ...
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I need a specific kernel version. How do I get the corresponding Debian iso?

Say I need a Debian with Kernel 3.2.63-2+deb7u1 i686. How do I find the corresponding Debian Version? I assume it would be Debian 7 because this document states that Debian 7 has Kernel version 3.2. ...
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How the file “.vmlinux.lds.cmd” is produced?

Recently, I want to know how vmlinux.lds is produced, I found a file called .vmlinux.lds.cmd which has: cmd_arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds := gcc -E -Wp,-MD,arch/x86/kernel/.vmlinux.lds.d -nostdinc -...
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How to compile kernel module for different kernel version?

I have the following kernel installed: [root@localhost ~]# uname -r 2.6.32-573.el6.x86_64 And the following kernel source: linux-2.6.32-573.1.1.el6.x86_64 I am trying to compile a kernel module ...
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Can I install a .vmlinuz-<version>.hmac for an installed kernel after the fact?

I installed a kernel from elrepo on my asus ux501jw, centos7 os. I have tried the 4.5.0 and the 4.4.6 versions. Both of them do not install the hmac file /boot/.vmlinuz-.hmac file. Concequently the ...
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Install GUI :Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.0 (Maipo)

I am trying to install GUI of Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.0 (Maipo) as i follow this web page install-gnome-gui-on-rhel-7-linux-server to install GUI but when i run first command ...
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152 views

Avoiding a buggy kernel version with “Oops” in radeon module

I have exactly the same problem as described here. I can find the same "Oops" messages in /var/log/kern.log. I also have an older Radeon HD (so I have to use the free driver). I downloaded the current ...
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cpupower can't be unable to call hardware when it tries to get the current cpu frequency

I tried cpupower on Archlinux, but it always was unable to call hardware when it tries to get the current cpu frequency. # cpupower frequncy-info analyzing CPU 0: driver: intel_pstate CPUs which ...
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14 views

Error occured with USB modem

I have MPC8309 Tower Board and connected USB Modem to it and then established Async PPP on Modem, now I started applying ping from different terminal from my laptop by applying nat commands and ...
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Invalid module format

I try to install a module using this command: sudo insmod mymod.ko [arg1] [arg2] but I get this error while loading the module: insmod: error inserting 'mymod.ko': -1 Invalid module format my ...
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34 views

iptables REJECT icmp-admin-prohibited

The iptables man page says: Using icmp-admin-prohibited with kernels that do not support it will result in a plain DROP instead of REJECT I have been unsuccessful at finding out at which kernel ...
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38 views

Linux kernel root= parameter

I'm trying to make a portable distro of linux on a 16MB SD card. I have a 2.4 kernel and extlinux as a bootloader. How can I pass the root= parameter to the kernel that the distro would be still ...
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Intermediate programmer seeks comprehensible info on which blobs are included in the Linux kernel, 4.2

I am specifically asking about the kernel included in Ubuntu 15.10 and my technical skills are meek-I can code in C, make system calls, use XCB. I barely know make, don't comprehend GIT. I cannot ...
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How to let kernel not run the printk with KERN_DEBUG

I noticed that kernel has different console levels for the printk. I also noticed this post [1]. I understand that we can change the /proc/sys/kernel/printk to change the printk level for the ...
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How to trace the life cycle of kernel threads by following creation and switching?

How to trace the life cycle of kernel threads by following creation and switching ? kernel_thread() and schedule() are the 2 functions I know that but have no idea how to implement it..
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Cannot create 16-bit LDT segments on kernel 3.8.11

Running Crossover, I get the warning, Your system does not allow creation of 16-bit LDT segments. I am aware that this was a problem around kernel 3.1.x, but I am on 3.8.11. Also, the fix suggested in ...
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How to get the absolute position (x, y coordinates) of a finger on a touchpad?

Main question: How to get the absolute finger position on the touchpad? I would like to get the absolute position (x, y coordinates) of a finger on a touchpad? I believe it is possible to extract it ...
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61 views

what exactly is the role of device driver in the bluetooth stack (bluez or bluedroid)

I have a bluetooth USB dongle and I wish to get a grasp of what the USB device driver that will be assigned to the bluetooth USB dongle will do and which part of the bluetooth stack it will cover. I ...
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115 views

using cpu.cfs_quota_us and cpu.cfs_period_us to limit CPU usage

There are 32 cores in a system (2 cpus each 16 cores) and I want to limit a user to use only 4 cores (100% usage for that 4 cores). There are two kernel parameter for that according to the manuals: ...
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How to call a device's power management methods in another way than during suspend to ram?

Let us consider the e1000e driver for an Ethernet card. This driver provide two power management methods .suspend and .resume to respectively turn off and turn on the card. Those methods are naturally ...
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Virtual serial ports /dev/pts

I'm trying to create virtual ports using GSM cmux. It creates virtual ports in /dev/chn 1 2 & 3. Which is linked to /dev/pts 0 1 & 2. But when I list dev directory there is no pts folder and ...
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92 views

Why do the Linux kernel headers contain references to nonexistent headers?

I'm trying to build IBCS (source here) on Ubuntu 15.10 (Linux 4.2.35). This module is obviously pretty old, because its CONFIG.i386 file gives gcc an option -m486, which doesn't exist anymore, but ...
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Do tmpfs and devtmpfs share the same memory region?

My system disk usage is like this: # df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/rhel-root 50G 39G 12G 77% / devtmpfs 5.8G 0 5.8G 0% /dev ...
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How to map Linux hard drive identifiers like “sd 3:0:0:0:” to ones like “ata8:”? [duplicate]

In my kernel log, I can see entries like: [ 0.765510] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] 3907029168 512-byte logical blocks: (2.00 TB/1.81 TiB) and when something fails, it's usually something like: [ ...
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Unable to compile Linux kernel

I am trying to upgrade my kernel to 4.5 in Linux Mint 17.3, but I get the following error: Makefile:666: Cannot use CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR_STRONG: -fstack-protector-strong not supported by compiler ...
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What program(s) is(are) lowering my entropy pool level? [duplicate]

I've made a simple bash script that checks the entropy pool level in /dev/random. I realize that the way I do it, I lower it very slightly at each check (cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail) but ...
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Unable to establish PPP on USB dongle?

I have USB Dongle and i am willing to setup ppp through the dongle. I have done following steps to setup ppp. 1.When i plugged the dongle into Ubuntu 14.04. It has been detected as the Mass ...
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Difference between architecture and platform in linux kernel

I want to know the difference between architecture and platform in Linux kernel. When I had downloaded the latest kernel tarball, observed that a directory named with arch, it contains different names ...
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How to reduce the size of the initrd when compiling your kernel?

When I compile my own kernel, basically what I do is the following: I download the sources from www.kernel.org and uncompress it. I copy my previous .config to the sources and do a make menuconfig ...
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Selinux inode security struct allocation

i'm trying to understand allocation of inode_security_struct in Selinux. I looked for a source code of selinux and there is only one allocation of this struct on line 230 in hooks.c file. This ...
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44 views

mkdir under /cgroup creates files along with directories

All this while I have been thinking that mkdir can only create directories. But I am surprised to see that it was able to create files also under some conditions. I recently started working with ...
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How to recover content of the file in unix? [duplicate]

I accidentally gave cat >filename instead of cat filename and my content is lost.Now I have only my file,but content is deleted.How to recover the content alone? Please help me to get back the content....
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How to create /usr/src/linux-headers-{version} files

I am trying to compile a custom kernel for Nvidia's Jetson TK1 board, and it seems that as well as the kernel itself (zImage) I will need /usr/src/linux-headers-{version} and /lib/modules/{version}. ...
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How can I crash the kernel?

I was writing a system call, done that and its working correctly. but I'm now looking for a way to crash the kernel somehow, and when does the kernel actually crash? I managed to put some pieces of ...
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Linux: Voltage and current regulator framework

When configuring the new 4.5 kernel, several questions arose regarding the "Linux voltage and current regulator framework". Of course I read the config help text and have a clue about what it does, ...
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In 4.4.0-kali1-amd64 all application are installed without errors ,but when i double click on the installed one,No response from the Icon at all.

The application that I installed on my Kali rolling are Google Chrome Banshee FlashPeak Slimjet Wine Everyone are installed,These are the steps that I followed while installing Google chrome ...
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What process state(s) is counted into cpu time?

Two observations of mine (correct me if wrong): In the output of time for timing a process, 'User' and 'Sys' come from wait (2) or times (2), depending on the particular system. In Linux ...
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Linux kernel 4.3 has issue with GPU/graphics hardware

I updated to linux kernel 4.3 on Debian Jessie via backports, i.e. apt-get -t jessie-backports install linux-image-686-pae on my 32Bit laptop with physical address extension and now, after booting, ...
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qemu - linux kernel doesn't recognize the supplied disk image

I'm trying to run Linux kernel on qemu from scratch. I've started working on a minimal configured kernel (after running make allnoconfig) and trying to configure only the things needed. So I have an ...
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Silent disk errors and reliability of Linux swap

My understanding is that hard drives and SSDs implement some basic error correction inside the drive, and most RAID configurations e.g. mdadm will depend on this to decide when a drive has failed to ...
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Where is the kernel source for a cross-complied kernel rpi

I have cross-compiled and installed the Linux kernel with the real-time patch, version 3.18.16-rt13-v7+, on a raspberrypi but then I can't find the current kernel source in /usr/src. Then I tried the ...
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Cannot compile a linux kernel for an ARM board [closed]

I am trying to compile a linux kernel (2.6.32.70) for an ARM board (versatilepb), it is my first steps in embedded linux. At the end of the compilation, two compressed kernel images are generated ...
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No data or clock on BeagleBone Green SPIDEV0

I've recently upgraded to the 26-02-16 Beaglebone Black/Green Debian image (Kernel 4.1.18) on a BeagleBone Green, and am trying to get SPI0 working like it was when I was back on kernel 3.8. I've ...
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CJDNS `Network is unreachable`

I'm not shure if this question belongs here, but anyway. I was trying to run cjdns on my android phone (OnePlus One runnig CyanogenMod 13) (actually tried on several devices), but it ain't working. It ...
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How does Linux kernel find out which process to wake up during interrupt handling?

I was reading the book Linux Kernel Development on Chapter Process Scheduling. On Page 61, section Waking Up, the first paragraph reads: Waking is handled via wake_up(), which wakes up all the ...
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What is a kernel-source-tree?

What is the Linux kernel source tree? What does it contain and what is its purpose? I'm trying to build an external module and the tutorial I'm using says to make sure that a kernel source tree is ...