Everything about UNIX kernels: development, configuration, compilation, design, etc.

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After installing a new Kernel in Ubuntu 14.04, rebooting takes me to busybox initramfs. How do I mount a filesystem after that?

I have a virtual machine with Ubuntu 14.04 in it. I recently built and installed linux-3.14.5 kernel on it, and tried to boot into it, but it drops me to BusyBox v1.21.1 built-in shell. Here's what I ...
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3answers
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mount.cifs : mount error(12) : Cannot allocate memory

I encountered this problem a while ago when upgrading my kernel but put off upgrading until now. On my system I can happily mount network shares using CIFS running kernel 3.7.10, however when I've ...
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1answer
2k views

How to fix unreliable Realtek Wireless card on Ubuntu 13.04

I have a Realtek RTL8188CE wireless card and it works fine when I have a strong signal, but if I get even slightly away from the wifi I lose connectivity even though there is a strong Rx signal. I ...
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37 views

Why does each process folder under /proc contain the same information?

Under /proc/<PID>/net pseudo-file system each process seems to have files with the same content. For example I use cat /proc/<PID>/net/ip_tables_names to list iptables tables under the ...
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how to limit dma address to specific range in linux kernel?

I want to limit the dma address the device can access to 0x0100_0000~0x03ff_ffff. But I don't know how to set the dma_mask and coherent_dma_mask. It's easy to set the "dma mask" for a range start ...
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1answer
581 views

How does bash execute an ELF file?

When I'm on my Linux Box I use bash as a shell. Now I wondered how bash handles the execution of an ELF file, that is when I type ./program and program is an ELF file. I grepped the bash-4.3.tar.gz, ...
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70 views

Noob Kernel Image Question

I'm playing about with CM-FX6 , an iMX6 based SOC. The chip comes with the following: http://www.compulab.co.il/workspace/mediawiki/index.php5/CM-FX6:_Linux:_Kernel **images** uImage-cm-fx6 - ready ...
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Why is there no rootfs file system present on my system?

The linux kernel documentation claims: Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. You can't unmount rootfs … On all linux ...
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49 views

Booting into a kernel image

I have a recently-compiled Linux kernel image (vmlinuz file) and I want to boot into it. I am aware that this won't give me a familiar Linux system, but I am hoping to be able to at least run some ...
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2answers
1k views

Linux freezing guess: keyboard & mouse (Archlinux and Ubuntu)

Linux on my PC is freezing a few seconds after startup. I am unable to use the mouse / keyboard. Neither Ubuntu nor Arch do anything after a few seconds. Windows has been running fine for years now. ...
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457 views

Linux: Is there a IPv6 equivalent to the IPv4 kernel option accept_local?

Since linux kernel >= 2.6.33 the kernel option "accept_local" can be modified: /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/${interfaceID}/ accept_local - BOOLEAN Accept packets with local source addresses. ...
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913 views

Why kernel 3.6.2 is so much less energy efficient than 3.6.1 on Mint 13?

I noticed, that the power consumption in my ASUS P53E notebook is doubled (from 10W to 20W) when I change from kernel 3.6.1 to 3.6.2 (or later). I use Ubuntu Quantal mainline kernel from ...
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3answers
263 views

How to install/make the kernel section 9 manpages which document its functions and data structures?

The kernel sources contain functions and data structures which are documented, for instance in panic.c: /** * panic - halt the system * @fmt: The text string to print * * Display a message, ...
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261 views

How do I compile the linux kernel version 3.16.1 to run in Slackware 14.1?

Could someone teach me or give me some tutorial? How do I compile the linux kernel version 3.16.1 to run in Slackware 14.1.
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LVM2 Mirror Support Missing from Kernel after System Migration

I had a system that was running on a small netbook that had LVM2 set up to group two external USB hard drives into a volume group, and to use that volume group to create a mirrored logical volume. ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between the following kernel Makefile terms: vmlinux, vmlinuz, vmlinux.bin, zimage & bzimage?

While browsing through the Kernel Makefiles, i found these terms. So i would like to know what is the difference between vmlinux, vmlinuz, vmlinux.bin, zimage & bzimage?
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After upgrading the kernel, the sound no longer works

I have updated the Linux kernel on my system to Linux 3.11-2-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.11.10-1 (2013-12-04) x86_64 GNU/Linux. Having done that, the sound no longer works. Distribution Info(cat ...
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2answers
128 views

Detecting kernel thread on pre-3.0 kernels

Looking at the proc man page (http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man5/proc.5.html) it is possible to detect which processes are kernel threads in /proc/<pid>/stat by looking at the flags value ...
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24 views

Generate what a GRUB2 kernel line would look like

In GRUB 0.97 we were able to see what the kernel line/options would look like by just viewing /boot/grub/grub.conf. Now the only way I know how to check the next boot kernel options/kernel version ...
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1answer
64 views

sysrq-trigger doesn't accept parameter 'g'

I'm trying to debug the kernel. But I couldn't trigger kgdb with echo g > /proc/sysrq-trigger, it just prints help message. I have enabled kernel debugging, kgdb over serial, frame pointer etc. ...
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Kexec immediately after Kickstart install (where is cmdline?)

I used to be able to kexec into a new kernel immediately after a kickstart (anaconda) install via pxe. I was able to do this by figuring out the current kernel version, and grabbing cmdline options ...
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Warning for kernel “make config” command without sudo

while trying to configure kernel before compile, when I give this command without sudo privileges: make config I get these: /boot/config-3.2.0-4-amd64:488:warning: symbol value 'm' invalid for ...
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1answer
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Installing a new OpenBSD kernel “safely”: why does `make install` go through these extra hoops?

After building a new OpenBSD kernel, the install target of the kernel Makefile does the following: rm -f /obsd ln /bsd /obsd cp bsd /nbsd mv /nbsd /bsd I understand that the first two lines remove ...
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“disagrees about version” message

I get a message "disagrees about version" on boot time, after compiling kernel and modules with KGDB. Why should this happen ? Is there any problem with KGDB ? This is the relevant log at boot: ...
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149 views

Resume from Suspend/Hibernate issues

I have a peculiar problem while trying to resume from both suspend and hibernate. I believe the problem to be within the kernel itself since I have tried different distros (Ubuntu, Suse, Mageia) on ...
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1answer
6k views

/lib/modules/2.6.37.6/build missing in linux puppy? what should I do?

I am new to linux as of yesterday. I'm using linux puppy to try to get the most out of a 10 year old, slow laptop. I installed it fine, no problems there, but as soon as I try to use my usb dongle's ...
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1answer
493 views

What happened to `vga=ask` in newer kernels?

I used to activate framebuffer mode in the "older" kernels with vga=ask, and later setting it to a value, once I've figured out which one works best for me. Now, this option seems to be gone, the ...
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How to boot on a ramdisk?

I'm working on a linux embedded for a custom board with a ARM9 processor. My kernel version is : 2.6.33 I'm trying to boot on a ramdisk, kernel correctly mount the file system but failed to execute ...
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879 views

Apt-Get Install Unmet Dependencies

My debian computer will not install the new kernel. It says I have unmet dependencies, and those dependencies say they have unmet dependencies. Many of these dependencies are already installed ...
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60 views

What does __ prefix before some kernel api's convey?

Why do some function calls in kernel specially have this prefix __ example: __init initialization(void) is __init a macro? What does this convey? Are these a special class of function calls inside ...
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How pipes work in Linux

I've been reading up about how pipes are implemented in the Linux kernel and wanted to validate my understanding. If I'm incorrect, the answer with the correct explanation will be selected. Linux ...
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74 views

/proc/config.gz is of 0 bytes

I have an Android TV stck I compiled Linux for IT from https://github.com/Galland/rk3x_kernel_3.0.36 But when I booted that Image I found /proc/config.gz is of 0 bytes can some please explain how ...
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3answers
626 views

Contents of /proc

Is there a site someplace that lists the contents of /proc and what each entry means?
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1answer
80 views

eCryptfs key in kernel image or initramfs

I have an embedded Linux system with unencrypted kernel image and initramfs in NAND flash. My RootFS is in SD card. I want to encrypted some files on SD Card as my SD card is easily accessible ...
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Module load map

How can I obtain a module load map? I've tried with the -m flag in insmod but it seems that since 2.6 there is no support for it. Thanks
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Can vmlinux be used instead of uImage?

I want to use an uncompressed kernel image and boot the BeagleBoard. Generally I use uImage to boot the kernel which is in compressed format. How do I use an uncompressed kernel image?
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install kernel headers without overwriting old headers

I've built a newer (3.16-rc2) kernel which is running fine. My userspace program needs to link against the newer headers as it uses some new definitions in fcntrl.h etc. My question is how do I ...
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Error Installinig Kernel on Centos (from Source)

I am running GNU/Linux (Centos 6) on kernel 2.6.32-431.17.1.el6.x86_64. I am trying to update the kernel to 3.2.61. I performed the following steps inside the 3.2.61 folder structure: make ...
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2answers
211 views

IPv6 NDP timer problem

Need to change Fedora Linux's IPv6 stack for NDP DAD timer changes. How to locate the Fedora's IPv6 and IPv4 stack in Fedora distribution dvd/site so that, we can recompile and generate new stack ?
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1answer
124 views

Is it possible to use XNU on GNU/Linux?

I was wondering whether it is possible to use the XNU kernel on a GNU/Linux system? But it would be, in effect, GNU/XNU. But is that possible? Does the kernel have sufficient drivers to boot on a ...
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1answer
386 views

How can I prevent drivers from binding USB devices on a certain bus?

I have a setup with two Logitech Unifying receivers, each receiver has a keyboard bound to it. One of the receiver is to be used by the physical machine to which the devices are connected, the other ...
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1answer
37 views

How do you patch a kernel? [duplicate]

I got diff text from lkml how do I patch it into a kernel source? I am very new to compiling kernels, and I couldn't find decent sources online I am using debian if it is relevant
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3answers
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What does the vm.swappiness parameter really control?

Per the kernel documentation: This control is used to define how aggressive the kernel will swap memory pages. Higher values will increase aggressiveness, lower values decrease the amount of swap. ...
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Kernel bisect: when a patch is failing for a reason other than original bisect purpose, what do you do? [closed]

Let's say you're trying to find the cause of a bug between 3.11.0 and 3.12.0. The bug is really difficult to catch, because it may or may not manifest itself over several days of regular workload ...
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1answer
23k views

How is a message queue implemented in the Linux kernel?

I would like to know how Message Queues are implemented in the Linux Kernel.
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CPUFreq Kernel module

I would like to try the CPUFreq module on my board (Marvell Soc based on ARMv7 running a v3.15 linux kernel). My architecture is obviously not supported by the default source code (located in the ...
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593 views

nfsd fails to start: modprobe: FATAL: Could not load /lib/modules/2.6.18-238.1.1.el5/modules.dep: No such file or directory

Before asking, here are some system specs: [root@SERVER ~]# cat /etc/*release **##############CARS build log for cars20-rhel-x86_64############## Date: Mon Feb 28 20:06:05 PST 2011 Builder: ...
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2answers
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Linux kernel headers' organization

While I was doing some reading on system calls, I did a search for "syscalls.h" to find the header file in LXR. The search results puzzled me. There is a dozen of "syscalls.h" files coming from ...
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1answer
73 views

Built new kernel, LVM won't mount from initrd

I need to upgrade my kernel on a RHEL 5 system to build with some experimental drivers. I have configured the kernel with module loading for LVM (dm_* modules). Once the initrd runs the /init ...
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1answer
125 views

Which kernel module name is currently correct “usb-storage” or “usb_storage”?

I have found a number of examples how to prevent a kernel module from being loaded. One of them is about USB storage module. The next code has been provided: echo "blacklist usb-storage" | sudo tee ...