The tag has no usage guidance, but it has a tag wiki.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
0answers
8 views

How much control do concrete file systems have over the VFS inode cache and the buffer cache?

I want to make sure I'm understanding how VFS inodes and file system inodes working together. A file system's inodes are stored on the block device and that is where they live. When an operation is ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Is an inode number a non-changeable id of an inode?

I am trying to understand the concept of the inode number of an inode. Is an inode number an/the id of an inode? Does an inode have exactly one inode number? or can an inode have zero or more than ...
29
votes
5answers
44k views

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

I had a problem (new to me) last week. I have a ext4 (Fedora 15) filesystem. The application that runs on the server suddenly stopped. I couldn't find the problem at first look. df showed 50% ...
4
votes
2answers
346 views

Is there an inode for a directory?

Each file has an inode. Is there an inode for every directory ? If not, how does Linux manage directories.
16
votes
3answers
11k views

List all files with the same inode number?

Lets say, when I do ls -li inside a directory, I get this: 12353538 -rw-r--r-- 6 me me 1650 2013-01-10 16:33 fun.txt As the output shows, the file fun.txt has 6 hard links; and the inode number is ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Files with no attributes, owner, group and inodes

Yesterday we started having problems with our emails. Investigating this, I found that there some files on our system that show all the attributes including inode, owner, group, permissions, size and ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

If I grow an ext4 partition, will it increase the number of inodes available?

If I create a small filesystem, and grow it when I need to, will the number of inodes increase proportionally? I want to use Docker with the overlay storage driver. This can be very inode hungry ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

size of directory reported by ls [duplicate]

I understand the size reported by ls corresponds with number of inodes inside the directory, not their actual size. I have noticed peculiar behavior, when displaying directory size with ls. Here is ...
61
votes
6answers
53k views

What is a Superblock, Inode, Dentry and a File?

From the article Anatomy of the Linux file system by M. Tim Jones, I read that Linux views all the file systems from the perspective of a common set of objects and these objects are superblock, inode, ...
50
votes
6answers
83k views

Find where inodes are being used

So I received a warning from our monitoring system on one of our boxes that the number of free inodes on a filesystem was getting low. df -i output shows this: Filesystem Inodes IUsed ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Can I create a file on ext4 with a depth > 1 for testing purposes?

In order to test an analysis tool, I need a file where the depth (eh.eh_depth) is greater than 1. I've tried a couple of things: A large file (1GiB) Creating hundreds of smaller files (1MiB), ...
0
votes
0answers
88 views

why my mobile HDD can not mount on the opensuse 42.1?

I want to mount my usb mobile HDD(mobile hard disk drive) to /mnt. I tried the following command sudo mount -t ntfs /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usbhd1 but I get the error message: Failed to open index ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How does inode work on ntfs partition?

I am using a multi OS computer. I have one hard drive with three major partitions, namely Windows, Ubuntu and Data(ntfs). And the ntfs Data Drive is mounted on Ubuntu. Suprisingly, when i call ll -i ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Are the links between the inode and data blocks of a file removed when deleting the file?

Suppose there is only one hard link to a file. When rm the hard link, the inode and data blocks of the file will be marked as unused. But are the links from the inode to the data blocks of the file ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

How are the sizes of Linux directories determined? [duplicate]

The results of ls -lh provides, among other things, a listing of subdirectories and their sizes. As the directories' sizes are not determined by the sum of the files within them, how are they ...
26
votes
8answers
51k views

How do I count all the files recursively through directories

I want to see how many files are in subdirectories to find out where all the inode usage is on the system. Kind of like I would do this for space usage du -sh /* which will give me the space used ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

How to delete corrupted directory

While copying music to the sd card of my android phone, the laptop froze so I had to reboot it using sysrq magic. Now any file manager on my Ubuntu or Android shows a directory 0 bytes big, and ...
-1
votes
1answer
148 views

Linux folder size limit

We are using below code to create folder in Linux server. File dir = new File(filePath); if(!dir.isDirectory()) dir.mkdirs(); After that creating files inside that ...
7
votes
2answers
518 views

what does a “deleted file” entry look like in the journal

I hope I've got this right: A file's inode contains data such as inode number, time of last modification, ownership etc. – and also the entry: »deletion time«. Which made me curious: ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Why are the first inode of the `/` mounted partition and inode of `/` different?

[~]$ stat -c %i / 2 As you can see in above, the inode for / is 2. But the First inode of /dev/sda2 is 11. [~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Recovering files with directory structure

EDIT: I am using Debian 8.1.0 So I somehow deleted my /etc directory. While I have not been able to recover the complete /etc directory hierarchy with all files, I have received different parts from ...
0
votes
3answers
70 views

How to influence the inode number, e.g., at filesystem restore?

Files in *nix filesystems almost always have an associated inode number. In most cases users seem not to deal very much with those inode numbers, as they use filenames (i.e. a hierarchical ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

How to increase inode size in Debian [duplicate]

I have VPS of following configuration. RAM : 4GB Swapped RAM : 4GB Disk : 500GB I'm unable to start any service it's showing No Space is available. df -i Filesystem ...
4
votes
3answers
562 views

“mv” file with garbled name by inode number?

I have several files with encoding issues in their file names (German umlauts, burned on CD with Windows, read by Windows and synced to Linux with Seafile. Something, somewhere went wrong...). Bash ...
1
vote
2answers
122 views

Number of files does not match inodes

I notice that the number of used inodes on the OCFS2 partition is around 28 million. I moved a folder that contained 518K files and the number became 22 million. The following script finds the number ...
9
votes
2answers
221 views

Is it possible to rename a file or directory using the inode?

I changed the /home directory to a different partition and couldn't access the files from it, something I have been able to solve from this question - How do you access the contents of a previous ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Why do I not see inode data in a hexdump or dd?

I'm not quite familiar with filesystem layers in the Linux kernel but I suppose that dd and hexdump do not get the inode information since they only do open() and read() syscalls, but I might be ...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

Can a file be retrieved by its inode?

Run command like the following: $ln a b $ls -i a b 523669 a 523669 b $rm -f a $ls -i b 523669 b I concluded from this test that command rm actually removes the filename (a in this test) only ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

Two hard linked files share inode

I'm working on an assignment for my college course, and one of the questions asks for the command used to create a hard link from one file to another so that they point to the same inode. We were ...
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Why debugfs doesn't show crtime in nanoseconds?

I am using: debugfs -R 'stat <7473635>' /dev/sda7 to get the file creation time (crtime). Inode: 7473635 Type: regular Mode: 0664 Flags: 0x80000 Generation: 1874934325 Version: ...
3
votes
1answer
139 views

Where are my inodes going?

My root filesystem is running out of inodes. If this were an issue of disk space, I'd use du -s to get a top-level overview of where the space is going, then head down the directory tree to find ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

ext4: How to save free blocks / inodes to a file

I'd like to save all free blocks / inodes from an ext4 file system to one or more files for further analysis and file recovery. It would be good to create one file for every contiguous set of free ...
-2
votes
1answer
62 views

Create five copies of file with the same inode number

How can I create five copies of /etc/profile with the same inode number?
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Kernel current working directory and inode information placement

I'm reading some doc about UNIX but I don't understand two things: Why is important for the kernel to know the current working directory of the running process? Why not keeping the inode information ...
5
votes
2answers
519 views

Why does renaming a file with mv command alter an inode's “change” date & time?

A file hello.c is renamed to hi.c. As the output of stat command shows, [change] time stamp has been changed. usually it is changed when inode of file got modified. Why renaming with mv command ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

keep same inodes metadata with rsync or ignore metadata with du

I'm trying to synchronize two folders from a remote computer. I want to use rsync to send the folder, and du to check if the space used is identical on the remote computer. The problem is even with a ...
2
votes
0answers
616 views

Exundelete can't restore the file

I'm trying to restore 2 important tar.gz files I know their directory but extundelete not restoring them although it's giving me the inode number. Loading filesystem metadata ... 2127 groups loaded. ...
2
votes
3answers
168 views

Manipulate multiple files by inode

I have a large number of files that contain backslashes \ that I would like to manipulate, but whenever I try something like: $ ls -li 2036553851 -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 6757 May 20 00:10 ...
1
vote
2answers
219 views

ext4 file system tuning for storage partition

I searched the Internet, but I was not able to find a satisfying answer to my problem. The Problem I'm encountering currently is, that I'm transitioning my data from a NTFS Partition to a ext4 ...
5
votes
2answers
144 views

Why does '/' have the inode 2?

On many *nix systems like OS X and Ubuntu, We can see the inode of root directory is 2. Then what is the inode 1 used for?
2
votes
2answers
93 views

How many inodes do I need to access to read a file?

Imagine I want to access the blocks of file /hello/file. How many inodes should I walt through? I guess two, since I should not go through the root inode, right?
5
votes
0answers
151 views

Limit the inode cache used by a command

I want to run a task with limits on the kernel objects that they will indirectly trigger. Note that this is not about the memory, threads, etc. used by the application, but about memory used by the ...
2
votes
0answers
197 views

What does an inode for a socket contain?

I read somewhere that the inode for a TCP socket would contain the buffer space. Is that true, and if so, does it mean that the inode contains a memory address for the buffer space used by the ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

How to setup boot scripts to save orphan inodes after improper shutdown?

after abnormal shutdown in dmesg I have [ 16.107445] EXT4-fs (dm-1): INFO: recovery required on readonly filesystem [ 16.107450] EXT4-fs (dm-1): write access will be enabled during recovery [ ...
13
votes
3answers
16k views

Quickly find which file(s) belongs to a specific inode number

I know of this command: find /path/to/mountpoint -inum <inode number> but it is a very slow search, I feel like there has to be a faster way to do this. Does anybody know a faster method?
5
votes
2answers
10k views

How do I find the inode of any directory?

There is literally nothing on google that I can find that will help me answer this question. I presume it is passing some other parameter to ls -i?
2
votes
4answers
977 views

Does the inode change when renaming or moving a file?

in PHP the fileinode() functions returns the inode of a file. I was wondering if I can use it to determine if a file was renamed, moved or modified. I did some tests and it seems the inode stays the ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Drawbacks of increasing number of inodes in EXT4

I am currently using backintime to take "snapshots" of my file system. It is similar to rsnapshot in that it, makes hard links to unchanged files. I have recently run out of inodes on my EXT4 ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

What is the downside of having many inodes?

Too few inodes can result in you not being able to store anymore files. What is the the downside of having many inodes ? (more than default)
1
vote
1answer
136 views

How to speed up directory listing on high-inode partitions?

I have almost 7,000 files in a single directory which makes loading that particular directory a tedious and time-consuming one. Is there any way to list and perform operations on files in that ...