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1
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0answers
18 views

Recovering files with directory structure

EDIT: I am using Debian 8.1.0 So I somehow deleted my /etc directory. While I have not been able to recover the complete /etc directory hierarchy with all files, I have received different parts from ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

ext4: How to save free blocks / inodes to a file

I'd like to save all free blocks / inodes from an ext4 file system to one or more files for further analysis and file recovery. It would be good to create one file for every contiguous set of free ...
29
votes
5answers
46k views

Find where inodes are being used

So I received a warning from our monitoring system on one of our boxes that the number of free inodes on a filesystem was getting low. df -i output shows this: Filesystem Inodes IUsed ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Where are my inodes going?

My root filesystem is running out of inodes. If this were an issue of disk space, I'd use du -s to get a top-level overview of where the space is going, then head down the directory tree to find ...
-3
votes
1answer
41 views

Create five copies of file with the same inode number

How can I create five copies of /etc/profile with the same inode number?
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Why does first inode of the `/` mounted partition and inode of `/` is different?

[~]$ stat -c %i / 2 As you can see in above, the inode for / is 2. But the First inode of /dev/sda2 is 11. [~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Kernel current working directory and inode information placement

I'm reading some doc about UNIX but I don't understand two things: Why is important for the kernel to know the current working directory of the running process? Why not keeping the inode information ...
5
votes
2answers
151 views

Why does renaming a file with mv command alter an inode's “change” date & time?

A file hello.c is renamed to hi.c. As the output of stat command shows, [change] time stamp has been changed. usually it is changed when inode of file got modified. Why renaming with mv command ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

keep same inodes metadata with rsync or ignore metadata with du

I'm trying to synchronize two folders from a remote computer. I want to use rsync to send the folder, and du to check if the space used is identical on the remote computer. The problem is even with a ...
2
votes
0answers
95 views

Exundelete can't restore the file

I'm trying to restore 2 important tar.gz files I know their directory but extundelete not restoring them although it's giving me the inode number. Loading filesystem metadata ... 2127 groups loaded. ...
23
votes
2answers
33k views

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

I had a problem (new to me) last week. I have a ext4 (Fedora 15) filesystem. The application that runs on the server suddenly stopped. I couldn't find the problem at first look. df showed 50% ...
2
votes
3answers
59 views

Manipulate multiple files by inode

I have a large number of files that contain backslashes \ that I would like to manipulate, but whenever I try something like: $ ls -li 2036553851 -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 6757 May 20 00:10 ...
1
vote
2answers
93 views

ext4 file system tuning for storage partition

I searched the Internet, but I was not able to find a satisfying answer to my problem. The Problem I'm encountering currently is, that I'm transitioning my data from a NTFS Partition to a ext4 ...
4
votes
2answers
100 views

Why does '/' have the inode 2?

On many *nix systems like OS X and Ubuntu, We can see the inode of root directory is 2. Then what is the inode 1 used for?
2
votes
2answers
45 views

How many inodes do I need to access to read a file?

Imagine I want to access the blocks of file /hello/file. How many inodes should I walt through? I guess two, since I should not go through the root inode, right?
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Limit the inode cache used by a command

I want to run a task with limits on the kernel objects that they will indirectly trigger. Note that this is not about the memory, threads, etc. used by the application, but about memory used by the ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

What does an inode for a socket contain?

I read somewhere that the inode for a TCP socket would contain the buffer space. Is that true, and if so, does it mean that the inode contains a memory address for the buffer space used by the ...
54
votes
5answers
42k views

What is a Superblock, Inode, Dentry and a File?

From the article Anatomy of Linux File Systems by Tim Jones, I read that Linux views all the file systems from the perspective of a common set of objects and these objects are superblock, inode, ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

How to setup boot scripts to save orphan inodes after improper shutdown?

after abnormal shutdown in dmesg I have [ 16.107445] EXT4-fs (dm-1): INFO: recovery required on readonly filesystem [ 16.107450] EXT4-fs (dm-1): write access will be enabled during recovery [ ...
11
votes
3answers
11k views

Quickly find which file(s) belongs to a specific inode number

I know of this command: find /path/to/mountpoint -inum <inode number> but it is a very slow search, I feel like there has to be a faster way to do this. Does anybody know a faster method?
5
votes
2answers
5k views

How do I find the inode of any directory?

There is literally nothing on google that I can find that will help me answer this question. I presume it is passing some other parameter to ls -i?
2
votes
4answers
293 views

Does the inode change when renaming or moving a file?

in PHP the fileinode() functions returns the inode of a file. I was wondering if I can use it to determine if a file was renamed, moved or modified. I did some tests and it seems the inode stays the ...
4
votes
2answers
5k views

Drawbacks of increasing number of inodes in EXT4

I am currently using backintime to take "snapshots" of my file system. It is similar to rsnapshot in that it, makes hard links to unchanged files. I have recently run out of inodes on my EXT4 ...
4
votes
2answers
158 views

What is the downside of having many inodes?

Too few inodes can result in you not being able to store anymore files. What is the the downside of having many inodes ? (more than default)
1
vote
1answer
80 views

How to speed up directory listing on high-inode partitions?

I have almost 7,000 files in a single directory which makes loading that particular directory a tedious and time-consuming one. Is there any way to list and perform operations on files in that ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

How to display metainformation for different kinds of time of a file ?

As far as I know each name within a path, e.g. /name1/name2/name3, is allocated to one inode. This inode is a collection of meta information for each name (file or directory). Some of these ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Should I increase inode count for a rsync backup volume?

Considering rsync used for incremental OS backup creates hardlink farms for all non-differing files, if I use it to backup a large, slowly-changing system regularly to a dedicated volume, I'm worried ...
4
votes
1answer
107 views

What are the implications of using an inode_ratio of 16384 in terms of storage use on ext4?

I'm assuming that this means that if the average file stored (including directories etc) is less than 16384 bytes, it may be possible to run out of inodes before using the full storage capacity of the ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How does one set up a Linode with a certain number of inodes?

Normally when one creates a Linode, they choose a plan, and then deploy a Linux distribution, and choose how much of the disk to allocate. Normally there is a swap partition and a main partition. But ...
21
votes
7answers
40k views

How do I count all the files recursively through directories

I want to see how many files are in subdirectories in there subdirectories to find out where all the inode usage is on the system. Kind of like I would do this for space usage du -sh /* which will ...
-1
votes
1answer
13 views

Number of occupied inodes via Quota?

Need help in determining how to do the following: Using the quota command, what is the number of occupied inodes by you in your pool account home directory? Find them out, with what type of file how ...
3
votes
3answers
218 views

How to use all the inodes

Without creating a file can I use any inode which is free? I want to write a script that will use all free inodes in the system. is it possible?
1
vote
2answers
260 views

Why does find -inum iterate through the whole filesystem tree?

It surprises me to see find iterate/walk through the complete filesystem when I do a simple find -inum 12345 Without background info it seems to me that there should be much easier ways for to tell ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

At Backup, when would the filesystems inode numbers matter?

background: Being somewhat of a coward I have up to now dd whole filesystems for backup. Major drawback has become the excessive use of memory for those complete backups (which unfortunatelly also ...
1
vote
1answer
146 views

How are large directories stored (one inode or many?)

I've been studying up on the ext2 file system and inodes, and I'm not quite understanding a few things. How big is an inode? The output from tune2fs says its 256 for my system, so is that 256 byes? ...
3
votes
1answer
942 views

Unreferenced inodes on EC2 linux instance

I have an Amazon EC2 instance which I am using as a NFS file server. It's using a 5x1TB volume RAID0 array. The system is very I/O intensive and files are being written/copied/deleted through the NFS ...
1
vote
0answers
98 views

bad inodes reappear after fsck() for vps guests

I have several vps guests that were created by virt-resize. I do daily backups on the guests by creating a snapshot and rsync file contents. But some of them don't have a clean disk image. As soon as ...
2
votes
0answers
247 views

Ran out of inodes on NFS

I have a RHEL 6 box with an NFS mount, mounted using autofs. I copied a big folder, with a lot of small files there, and used up all of my inodes, but I still have 80% of my storage space left, this ...
-1
votes
2answers
142 views

Does tar create new inodes to be archived?

When tar is asked to archive a directory, does it create a new inode for each file system object? If yes, how does it query and save the meta-data? Won't the format of storing this inode metadata vary ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Why restrict the number of inodes a user can access?

It appears that it is possible on a network mount to set a quota on how much space a user can consume. # edquota ramesh Disk quotas for user ramesh (uid 500): Filesystem blocks ...
0
votes
1answer
440 views

What's the difference between modification date and inode's modification date?

I've just found some interesting information for me in man stat: a, m, c, B The time file was last accessed or modified, of when the inode was last changed, or the birth time of the inode. But ...
7
votes
2answers
330 views

what does a “deleted file” entry look like in the journal

I hope I've got this right: A file's inode contains data such as inode number, time of last modification, ownership etc. – and also the entry: »deletion time«. Which made me curious: ...
1
vote
1answer
112 views

Why is it impossible to change the inode count of an ext filesystem?

I know that it isn't possible to change the inode count of an ext filesystem after its creation, but I haven't been able to find any explanation on why it isn't. Can anyone enlighten me?
1
vote
1answer
144 views

Where have all my inodes gone?

Today, I ran out of inodes on one of my VPSs. I deleted a bunch of superfluous small files, freeing enough inodes to make the system operational again: Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

link count of deleted files

I am reading in man lsof that +L enables the listing of file link counts. A specification of the form "+L1" will select open files that have been unlinked. I don't understand why deleted files ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

Work out the link count of inode number?

How can I work out the link count of an inode number? If I know the inode number is, say, 592255 - what workings out can I do to find out the link count? I know directories have a link count of at ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Difference between xattr and chattr

What is the relation and the difference between xattr and chattr? I want to know when I set a chattr attribute in Linux what is happening inside the Linux kernel and inode metadata.
3
votes
1answer
2k views

inode limitation on a 500GB hard disk? Can you explain please?

I am launching a social networking website on LAMP Stack on Linux Ubuntu, I know that people are going to upload lots of pictures. Let's say I have 5000 users and each user upload a minimum of 100 ...
1
vote
2answers
355 views

When do inode modification times change? [closed]

I am currently reading UNIX by Bach. I encountered a problem while reading the section on inodes in the 4th chapter. A file modified time is shown as 1:45pm but the inode modified time is shown as ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Where are information stored information about hard/soft links

Where does the *nix system store information about number of hard links to a specific inode? I can't find any information about that. Everywhere what a hard link is but rarely a bit more advanced ...