init is the first actual process (PID 1) spawned during the boot sequence of a UNIX system. Some systems may rely on alternative solutions such as systemd or Upstart (Ubuntu).

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Debian init runlevels

It used to be that when you booted most linuxes, you would boot into runlevel 6, unless you did something during the bootloading to change the runlevel,. The process would then look in ...
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Creating a shutdown only script with update-rc.d

I have a Raspberry PI running the standard Raspbian distribution. I have this little C program that I need to run at the very end of the shutdown sequence. All it does is send a couple of logical high ...
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inittab respawn and rc.local

At the moment I have a daemon starting at boot using rc.local by the following line. su -l user -c '/dir/daemon' but I would like to start this process as a service with respawn. I found out that ...
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rc.local isn't being executed on custom Ubuntu LiveCD image

I have unpacked an Ubuntu desktop live ISO and squashfs, added some simple commands to /etc/rc.local (touch a file in /tmp, wget a web page from a local server), but it seems that rc.local isn't ...
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Minimal Linux with kernel and BusyBox: /etc/inittab is ignored, only /init is executed

I managed to create a small and fully functional live Linux CD which contains only kernel (compiled with default options) and BusyBox (compiled with default options + static, all applets present, ...
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63 views

SquashFS+UnionFS as root filesystem?

What's an easy way to to use a union filesystem (read-only SquashFS + R/W overlay) as /? I'm thinking of using a custom boot script as the kernel init= argument. The script would mount the SquashFS + ...
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1answer
15 views

How to log output to log file using runit

I am running program using runit to run at startup. I want all the output by from the program that is run by runit to be logged to a file. I have looked at svlogd but I cannot figure out how to get ...
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systemd : write a .service daemon for setting up swap and fs in zram

I recently acquired a laptop with a ssd and in order not to weigh too much on the ssd (which I was told had a limited number of write cycles), I decided to write a systemd unit file for setting up a ...
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What is the systemd equvalent to sysvinit 'X-Start-Before'?

Quoted from https://wiki.debian.org/LSBInitScripts. X-Start-Before: boot_facility_1 [boot_facility_2...] X-Stop-After: boot_facility_1 [boot_facility_2...] provide reverse dependencies, ...
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The linker does not find libraries in /lib

I am building a small embedded system for a x86_64 target, with a Linux kernel and an initramfs which contains a dynamically linked busybox. I tried to install the needed libraries (libm.so.6, ...
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3answers
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When to use reboot(2) vs reboot(8)

I'm writing a custom reboot program in C and trying to decide if I should use reboot(2) directly or call system("/sbin/reboot"). Both reboot(8) and init 6 change the runlevel and gracefully shut down ...
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Show kernel parameters passed to init [duplicate]

I learned that if the kernel does not understand a parameter, it saves it and passes it to init when performing the user space start. While e.g. in show parameters of running kernel or How to display ...
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/sbin/init is shared object?

I know 'init' is first process that is started after the kernel is loaded, but there is an ambiguity for me. If it is a process it must have a binary executable file. However, the following shared ...
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3answers
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Starting Qt Application On Startup for Embedded Linux

I'm trying to get a Qt application to launch immediately after booting up. When booted, the Linux image does nothing more than launch an X server and a terminal. It also has the cron daemon running in ...
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1answer
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What is a sync during kernel boot?

If something prevents a Linux system from booting, it is common to see this message: kernel panic - not syncing: [Error Message] But what does "not syncing" mean? What exactly isn't syncing? The ...
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What exactly does init do?

I am creating a linux distro and now I need an init program. I can code in c really well and I know quite a bit about linux (not much but I've been using arch linux for development for 4 years), so I ...
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startx autologin does not run in /etc/inittab in after Debian Jessie update

I installed a minimal Debian system (stable) without GUI, switched to testing/jessie to be able to get the Cinnamon desktop, but X didn't start on boot. If I log in as myself at the CLI, I can type ...
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1answer
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Linux kernel action upon init process exiting

Say I am writing my own init program running on a Linux kernel. What happens when my init program exits with return value 0 ? Additionally is the behaviour different if the return value is non-zero? ...
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What is the difference between reboot , init 6 and shutdown -r now?

I just want to know difference between in reboot init 6 shutdown -r now and which is the safest and the best?
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1answer
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Orphan process's parent id is not 1 when parent process executed from GNOME Terminal

I start a new process from GNOME Terminal and then this process fork a child. But when I killed the parent process the orphaned process's parent id became something other than 1 which represent init ...
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1answer
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lsb - log_daemon_msg echoes messages in shell console!

#!/bin/sh . /lib/lsb/init-functions log_daemon_msg "this is a daemon s message" On the shell console, it prints, this is a daemon s message A daemon process doesn't have stdout at all. So why ...
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Linux - IPC with init

The init process exists as an ancestor of all of processes on a linux system. Does this process have any kind of IPC entry point ? Do other processes ever do IPC with init for any reason ?
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“There is a loop between service rc.local and mountnfs-bootclean if started”

So this is the error I receive when I try sudo apt-get upgrade insserv: There is a loop between service rc.local and mountnfs-bootclean if started insserv: loop involving service mountnfs-bootclean ...
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Does Debian Testing use Sysvinit, Systemd or Upstart? How do I configure it (them?)?

I have a copy of Debian Gnome, installed from live medium then upgraded to testing. I've decided to change my default X environment from GDM to i3 for reasons of productivity. This lead me to wanting ...
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What is the purpose of having two login managers on one system ?

I read, that the first process born in user-space is called Init, it starts by itself further processes, it also possesses an incorporated login manager. So far, I could understand it, but than I ...
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Can root kill init process?

Can root kill init process (the process with pid 1)? What would be its consequences?
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Restarting init without restarting the system

In this question on security SE, the accepted answers states that For example, /sbin/init uses glibc [the vulnerable lib], and restarting that without a reboot is non-trivial. Now, non-trivial ...
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Why does running `killall init` as user log me out?

On multiple computers running Ubuntu 14.XX, I ran the command "killall init" as user, and was immediately logged out. I could log back in again without a problem. Why is this? What's going on behind ...
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388 views

Systemd hangs in Xen Dom0 immediately after switch_root in boot process

I've been trying to set up Xen to work with UEFI and my Arch Linux install (3.18.2) as a Dom0 but have been unable to boot. Of note is the fact that it will boot completely fine otherwise, just not ...
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Why doesn't `shutdown now` (with no other arguments) run init scripts?

I'm running Rasbpian on my Pi, and I have a script in /etc/rc0.d (or more precisely, a symlink to /etc/init.d/myscript.sh) that does some GPIO output to notify the user that power can be shut off. If ...
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New parent process when the parent process dies

In UNIX, when a parent process disappears, I thought that all child processes reset init as their parent. Is this not correct all the time? Are there any exceptions?
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segfault in libgnutls - Debian won't complete boot

this problem occurs on Debian jessie x86 with systemd. It leads to an incomplete boot sequence on init 2 because network-manager won't start. it leaves the whole system unusable NetworkManager[785]: ...
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ERROR: init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) terminated with status 1

I'm getting the following errors every 10-30 seconds on a virtual Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 2 Server on Amazons EC2. Sep 23 09:57:05 ServerName init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) ...
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Init as a shell script

I was going through a tutorial on setting up a custom initramfs where it states: The only thing that is missing is /init, the executable in the root of the initramfs that is executed by the ...
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Detect init system using the shell

This may have more to do with detecting operating systems, but I specifically need the init system currently in use on the system. Fedora 15 now uses systemd, Ubuntu uses Upstart, while others use ...
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Why is my Debian jessie always in runlevel 5?

I have configured the line in /etc/inittab as follows: # The default runlevel. id:2:initdefault: But after logging in the output of runlevel is as follows: N 5 So why am I in runlevel 5 instaed ...
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/init can't find /bin/mount, but find / can?

I have trouble, while booting up a linux machine of mine. During the boot phase, while running the /init script it complains about not being able to find mount. My PATH variable is set to /sbin and ...
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How to fix boot into initramfs prompt and “mount: can't read '/etc/fstab': No such file or directory” and “No init found”?

Installing a new system using a GPT partitioned disk dedicated to a single partition, ext4 formatted, extlinux (version 4.05) as bootloader, Ubuntu Core version 13.10 amd64 as rootfs, and Ubuntu ...
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Start tomcat at startup with administrative privileges

I need one process run before log in to system. How to run it like services? how do I make services in Linux? In Ubuntu and Fedora? The service is customized tomcat
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Is there any UNIX variant on which a child process dies with its parent?

I have been studying the Linux kernel behaviour for quite some time now, and it's always been clear to me that: When a process dies, all its children are given back to the init process (PID 1) ...
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Changing service startup order

I use wpa_supplicant to configure the wireless connection. Now I have a problem in that the network service starts before wpa_supplicant so this happens: Bringing up interface wlan0: Determining IP ...
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2answers
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Sabayon - mysql (and other services) won't start

It's a fresh install of Sabayon Linux. I installed mysql (equo install dev-db/mysql), configured it (emerge --config ...), but it doesn't start using /etc/init.d script: # /etc/init.d/mysql start * ...
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disabling ctrl-alt-del and /etc/init

My OS is RHEL 6.2 I disable Ctrl+Alt+Del by changing in /etc/init/control-alt-del.conf the line exec /sbin/shutdown -r now "Control-alt-del pressed" by exec /bin/true I'll be testing it next ...
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LinuxMint 14 x64 halts during startup at: stopping samba auto-reload integration

My Lenovo Y500 intel i7 nvidia gt 560m LinuxMint 14 x64 halts during startup at: stopping samba auto-reload integration No error shown. No login prompt. I accidentally executed this in the wrong ...
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Difference between telinit and running scripts manually under rc*.d

I was trying to debug my Linux boot process. If I set the default runlevel to 2 or 3, my system hangs without giving me a prompt. I was able to get to runlevel 1 via a kernel parameter, and ran all ...
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init.d script is not starting under virtualbox

The script is in /etc/init.d: #!/bin/bash VMUSER=myname CURRDATE=(`date +"%m-%d-%Y"` + `date +"%H:%M:%S"`) CURRTIME=(`date +"%X"`) FILE=/home/myname/log/vm-services.log VBPATH=/usr/bin start(){ ...
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How can I replace root / filesystem with another filesystem?

When the Linux kernel starts up, it uses initrd as the root / filesystem, then replaces that with a filesystem partition in fstab. Based on a test in an early init script, I want to replace that root ...
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How to boot on a ramdisk?

I'm working on a linux embedded for a custom board with a ARM9 processor. My kernel version is : 2.6.33 I'm trying to boot on a ramdisk, kernel correctly mount the file system but failed to execute ...
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What does `init [2]` mean in the COMMAND column of ps?

Reading What do the brackets around processes mean? I understand that the executable name is printed. Linux ps man page: Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this happens, ps will ...
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What happens if I set default system runlevel to 0 or 6?

What I understand from runlevels is that in each level some programs have permission to be executed and some don't. runlevel 3 boots system into CLI and runlevel 5 starts the default GUI. But I don't ...