init is the first actual process (PID 1) spawned during the boot sequence of a UNIX system. Some systems may rely on alternative solutions such as systemd or Upstart (Ubuntu).

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Debian init runlevels

It used to be that when you booted most linuxes, you would boot into runlevel 6, unless you did something during the bootloading to change the runlevel,. The process would then look in ...
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Restarting init without restarting the system

In this question on security SE, the accepted answers states that For example, /sbin/init uses glibc [the vulnerable lib], and restarting that without a reboot is non-trivial. Now, non-trivial ...
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639 views

Why does running `killall init` as user log me out?

On multiple computers running Ubuntu 14.XX, I ran the command "killall init" as user, and was immediately logged out. I could log back in again without a problem. Why is this? What's going on behind ...
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1answer
56 views

Systemd hangs in Xen Dom0 immediately after switch_root in boot process

I've been trying to set up Xen to work with UEFI and my Arch Linux install (3.18.2) as a Dom0 but have been unable to boot. Of note is the fact that it will boot completely fine otherwise, just not ...
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What happens with functions using macro *__init* as prefix? [migrated]

From the info I've read about module initialization in a Linux OS, I came to know that the function calls that are having a prefix like __init will be placed in a single ELF location. For example we ...
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1answer
64 views

Why doesn't `shutdown now` (with no other arguments) run init scripts?

I'm running Rasbpian on my Pi, and I have a script in /etc/rc0.d (or more precisely, a symlink to /etc/init.d/myscript.sh) that does some GPIO output to notify the user that power can be shut off. If ...
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4answers
295 views

New parent process when the parent process dies

In UNIX, when a parent process disappears, I thought that all child processes reset init as their parent. Is this not correct all the time? Are there any exceptions?
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25 views

segfault in libgnutls - Debian won't complete boot

this problem occurs on Debian jessie x86 with systemd. It leads to an incomplete boot sequence on init 2 because network-manager won't start. it leaves the whole system unusable NetworkManager[785]: ...
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ERROR: init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) terminated with status 1

I'm getting the following errors every 10-30 seconds on a virtual Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 2 Server on Amazons EC2. Sep 23 09:57:05 ServerName init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) ...
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1answer
230 views

Init as a shell script

I was going through a tutorial on setting up a custom initramfs where it states: The only thing that is missing is /init, the executable in the root of the initramfs that is executed by the ...
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4answers
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What is the difference between reboot , init 6 and shutdown -r now?

I just want to know difference between in reboot init 6 shutdown -r now and which is the safest and the best?
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10answers
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Detect init system using the shell

This may have more to do with detecting operating systems, but I specifically need the init system currently in use on the system. Fedora 15 now uses systemd, Ubuntu uses Upstart, while others use ...
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3answers
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Why is my Debian jessie always in runlevel 5?

I have configured the line in /etc/inittab as follows: # The default runlevel. id:2:initdefault: But after logging in the output of runlevel is as follows: N 5 So why am I in runlevel 5 instaed ...
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2answers
57 views

/init can't find /bin/mount, but find / can?

I have trouble, while booting up a linux machine of mine. During the boot phase, while running the /init script it complains about not being able to find mount. My PATH variable is set to /sbin and ...
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2answers
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How to fix boot into initramfs prompt and “mount: can't read '/etc/fstab': No such file or directory” and “No init found”?

Installing a new system using a GPT partitioned disk dedicated to a single partition, ext4 formatted, extlinux (version 4.05) as bootloader, Ubuntu Core version 13.10 amd64 as rootfs, and Ubuntu ...
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7answers
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Start tomcat at startup with administrative privileges

I need one process run before log in to system. How to run it like services? how do I make services in Linux? In Ubuntu and Fedora? The service is customized tomcat
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4answers
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Is there any UNIX variant on which a child process dies with its parent?

I have been studying the Linux kernel behaviour for quite some time now, and it's always been clear to me that: When a process dies, all its children are given back to the init process (PID 1) ...
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1answer
736 views

Changing service startup order

I use wpa_supplicant to configure the wireless connection. Now I have a problem in that the network service starts before wpa_supplicant so this happens: Bringing up interface wlan0: Determining IP ...
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2answers
930 views

Sabayon - mysql (and other services) won't start

It's a fresh install of Sabayon Linux. I installed mysql (equo install dev-db/mysql), configured it (emerge --config ...), but it doesn't start using /etc/init.d script: # /etc/init.d/mysql start * ...
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2answers
170 views

disabling ctrl-alt-del and /etc/init

My OS is RHEL 6.2 I disable Ctrl+Alt+Del by changing in /etc/init/control-alt-del.conf the line exec /sbin/shutdown -r now "Control-alt-del pressed" by exec /bin/true I'll be testing it next ...
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2answers
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Starting Qt Application On Startup for Embedded Linux

I'm trying to get a Qt application to launch immediately after booting up. When booted, the Linux image does nothing more than launch an X server and a terminal. It also has the cron daemon running in ...
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70 views

where is upstart jobs pid held [closed]

Since the upstart command keeps giving me the wrong pid for a job no matter what I try, I would like to manually change it to the correct pid. Does anybody know where the pid for upstart jobs are ...
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1answer
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LinuxMint 14 x64 halts during startup at: stopping samba auto-reload integration

My Lenovo Y500 intel i7 nvidia gt 560m LinuxMint 14 x64 halts during startup at: stopping samba auto-reload integration No error shown. No login prompt. I accidentally executed this in the wrong ...
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1answer
76 views

Difference between telinit and running scripts manually under rc*.d

I was trying to debug my Linux boot process. If I set the default runlevel to 2 or 3, my system hangs without giving me a prompt. I was able to get to runlevel 1 via a kernel parameter, and ran all ...
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init.d script is not starting under virtualbox

The script is in /etc/init.d: #!/bin/bash VMUSER=myname CURRDATE=(`date +"%m-%d-%Y"` + `date +"%H:%M:%S"`) CURRTIME=(`date +"%X"`) FILE=/home/myname/log/vm-services.log VBPATH=/usr/bin start(){ ...
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How can I replace root / filesystem with another filesystem?

When the Linux kernel starts up, it uses initrd as the root / filesystem, then replaces that with a filesystem partition in fstab. Based on a test in an early init script, I want to replace that root ...
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How to boot on a ramdisk?

I'm working on a linux embedded for a custom board with a ARM9 processor. My kernel version is : 2.6.33 I'm trying to boot on a ramdisk, kernel correctly mount the file system but failed to execute ...
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1answer
209 views

What does `init [2]` mean in the COMMAND column of ps?

Reading What do the brackets around processes mean? I understand that the executable name is printed. Linux ps man page: Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this happens, ps will ...
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1answer
874 views

Minimal Linux with kernel and BusyBox: /etc/inittab is ignored, only /init is executed

I managed to create a small and fully functional live Linux CD which contains only kernel (compiled with default options) and BusyBox (compiled with default options + static, all applets present, ...
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2answers
541 views

What happens if I set default system runlevel to 0 or 6?

What I understand from runlevels is that in each level some programs have permission to be executed and some don't. runlevel 3 boots system into CLI and runlevel 5 starts the default GUI. But I don't ...
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60 views

CTRL-ALT-DEL for init 0?

On On my Debian 7 system the Ctrl-Alt-Del is this line below and is by default init 6 ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now But I want to turn for init 0 and not init 6 when I press ...
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65 views

Time that init waits before sending kill -9 upon shutdown?

As far as I understand the shutdown command: If I send a shutdown -h now init will try and stop all processes gracefully, wait a certain amount of time, then send kill -9. My question is: how long ...
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1answer
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SIGKILLing after a grace period

I've seen a lot of process managers that try to do this. It was my understanding that you should only use SIGTERM to kill a process. The process could take an unknown amount of time to clean up after ...
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330 views

Server won't boot, kernel panic - not syncing

After a reboot of a CentOS 6.2 server we are getting a kernel panic with the following error: Kernel panic - not syncing: Attempted to kill init! Panic occurred, switching back to text console ...
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1answer
175 views

How do I set cron to run on background?

I am on ubuntu 12.04 and following this tutorial. I want to setup cron to run in the background but I don't have a chckconfig in sbin so I can't run sudo /sbin/chkconfig crond on I am fairly new to ...
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1answer
77 views

Emacs, complete list of color “keys”

If you want to customize the colors in Emacs, specifying them in the .emacs init file, without installing any extra package, and without using a pre-made theme, something like this seems to work: ...
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1answer
131 views

Dedicated-purpose, single application linux boxes

I'm designing an app that will be deployed/installed to a linux machine (perhaps Archlinux, but could be any distro and in fact I would actually prefer something lightweight and inside the Debian ...
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1answer
276 views

What are my problems with my VMWare runlevel setup?

I recently upgraded to Debian Wheezy (7) and had to upgrade VMWare Player along with that since the version I had didn't like the 3.2 kernel. However, I notice that the kernel modules aren't starting ...
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1answer
770 views

How does init determine which devices to modprobe?

I'm building a totally custom initramfs for a netbooting project and in the process learning a lot about it, but I'm a little puzzled by the loading of modules. I know modprobe can be used to load ...
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(nologin) root and id X re-spawning

Today I faced a strange issue on one of the test server. Server was set to Runlevel 5. But it didnt work and system changed to runlevel 3. It was showing "init: Id "x" respawning too fast: disabled ...
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1answer
891 views

When would you use pivot_root over switch_root?

I'm wanting to understand the Linux init process better in order to netboot a system over ceph rather than nfs. In the process I've come across two forms of switching root. One called switch_root, ...
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1answer
285 views

Init script leaves thousands of defunct processes

My problem is that I have an init script that is generating thousands of defunct bash processes. My goal is to have a program called "fr24feed" in its own screen session on boot. After looking at ...
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1answer
146 views

Check `fsck` automatically

I need to run fsck so that it automatically fixes problems (i.e., fsck -y). And because I am using "systemd" instead of "init" in the linux system, I cannot modify the /etc/default/rcS. So what ...
2
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1answer
107 views

Application lags if started from init.d?

I have a program (pre-compiled binary) that, when started manually on linux, runs fine. It has a CLI that I use to enter commands. This program is a software router, I can connect to it's CLI to ...
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2answers
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`[java] <defunct>` with defunct children -> Any way to collect them?

Relating to question : What if 'kill -9' doesn't work? I have following situation : zombie process with threads, not collected by init : [root@Arch64]# ps auxH | grep java gwpl 569 ...
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Which getty should I use for /dev/tty1 - tty6 text consoles in linux, agetty or something other

I'm configuring LFS linux and I want to select right "getty" for /etc/inittab to handle text consoles /dev/tty1 - /dev/tty6 (the text consoles handled by linux kernel, with output on first display). ...
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2answers
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/etc/init.d/script, or /etc/inittab - respawn on die

I have a daemon/service (milter-regex), that is dying. I'm only using it temporarily (A few months), so don't care too much, but I want it to restart when it dies. It is an init.d script. 'service ...
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3answers
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Shall I expect faster boot when I boot my system with run level 1

I understand that when I set runlevel as 1, my system will boot with very basic set of commands. Does that mean the system will boot faster as compared to run level 5 or 3?
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1answer
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Arch Linux pacman -Syu breaks machine [closed]

Strange things have been going on with arch recently after I installed libreoffice. The first sign was that there were no longer any icons on my desktop. I thought this was strange so I rebooted, ...
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7answers
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Can root kill init process?

Can root kill init process (the process with pid 1)? What would be its consequences?