init is the first actual process (PID 1) spawned during the boot sequence of a UNIX system. Some systems may rely on alternative solutions such as systemd or Upstart (Ubuntu).

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When to use reboot(2) vs reboot(8)

I'm writing a custom reboot program in C and trying to decide if I should use reboot(2) directly or call system("/sbin/reboot"). Both reboot(8) and init 6 change the runlevel and gracefully shut down ...
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32 views

Show kernel parameters passed to init [duplicate]

I learned that if the kernel does not understand a parameter, it saves it and passes it to init when performing the user space start. While e.g. in show parameters of running kernel or How to display ...
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1answer
70 views

/sbin/init is shared object?

I know 'init' is first process that is started after the kernel is loaded, but there is an ambiguity for me. If it is a process it must have a binary executable file. However, the following shared ...
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1answer
38 views

What is a sync during kernel boot?

If something prevents a Linux system from booting, it is common to see this message: kernel panic - not syncing: [Error Message] But what does "not syncing" mean? What exactly isn't syncing? The ...
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4answers
931 views

What exactly does init do?

I am creating a linux distro and now I need an init program. I can code in c really well and I know quite a bit about linux (not much but I've been using arch linux for development for 4 years), so I ...
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1answer
55 views

Linux kernel action upon init process exiting

Say I am writing my own init program running on a Linux kernel. What happens when my init program exits with return value 0 ? Additionally is the behaviour different if the return value is non-zero? ...
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3answers
379 views

startx autologin does not run in /etc/inittab in after Debian Jessie update

I installed a minimal Debian system (stable) without GUI, switched to testing/jessie to be able to get the Cinnamon desktop, but X didn't start on boot. If I log in as myself at the CLI, I can type ...
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1answer
78 views

Orphan process's parent id is not 1 when parent process executed from GNOME Terminal

I start a new process from GNOME Terminal and then this process fork a child. But when I killed the parent process the orphaned process's parent id became something other than 1 which represent init ...
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1answer
37 views

lsb - log_daemon_msg echoes messages in shell console!

#!/bin/sh . /lib/lsb/init-functions log_daemon_msg "this is a daemon s message" On the shell console, it prints, this is a daemon s message A daemon process doesn't have stdout at all. So why ...
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1answer
28 views

Linux - IPC with init

The init process exists as an ancestor of all of processes on a linux system. Does this process have any kind of IPC entry point ? Do other processes ever do IPC with init for any reason ?
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155 views

“There is a loop between service rc.local and mountnfs-bootclean if started”

So this is the error I receive when I try sudo apt-get upgrade insserv: There is a loop between service rc.local and mountnfs-bootclean if started insserv: loop involving service mountnfs-bootclean ...
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2answers
224 views

Does Debian Testing use Sysvinit, Systemd or Upstart? How do I configure it (them?)?

I have a copy of Debian Gnome, installed from live medium then upgraded to testing. I've decided to change my default X environment from GDM to i3 for reasons of productivity. This lead me to wanting ...
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1answer
37 views

What is the purpose of having two login managers on one system ?

I read, that the first process born in user-space is called Init, it starts by itself further processes, it also possesses an incorporated login manager. So far, I could understand it, but than I ...
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1answer
468 views

Restarting init without restarting the system

In this question on security SE, the accepted answers states that For example, /sbin/init uses glibc [the vulnerable lib], and restarting that without a reboot is non-trivial. Now, non-trivial ...
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1answer
742 views

Why does running `killall init` as user log me out?

On multiple computers running Ubuntu 14.XX, I ran the command "killall init" as user, and was immediately logged out. I could log back in again without a problem. Why is this? What's going on behind ...
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1answer
330 views

Systemd hangs in Xen Dom0 immediately after switch_root in boot process

I've been trying to set up Xen to work with UEFI and my Arch Linux install (3.18.2) as a Dom0 but have been unable to boot. Of note is the fact that it will boot completely fine otherwise, just not ...
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1answer
90 views

Why doesn't `shutdown now` (with no other arguments) run init scripts?

I'm running Rasbpian on my Pi, and I have a script in /etc/rc0.d (or more precisely, a symlink to /etc/init.d/myscript.sh) that does some GPIO output to notify the user that power can be shut off. If ...
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1answer
281 views

Init as a shell script

I was going through a tutorial on setting up a custom initramfs where it states: The only thing that is missing is /init, the executable in the root of the initramfs that is executed by the ...
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1answer
62 views

segfault in libgnutls - Debian won't complete boot

this problem occurs on Debian jessie x86 with systemd. It leads to an incomplete boot sequence on init 2 because network-manager won't start. it leaves the whole system unusable NetworkManager[785]: ...
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3answers
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Why is my Debian jessie always in runlevel 5?

I have configured the line in /etc/inittab as follows: # The default runlevel. id:2:initdefault: But after logging in the output of runlevel is as follows: N 5 So why am I in runlevel 5 instaed ...
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2answers
91 views

/init can't find /bin/mount, but find / can?

I have trouble, while booting up a linux machine of mine. During the boot phase, while running the /init script it complains about not being able to find mount. My PATH variable is set to /sbin and ...
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4answers
3k views

Is there any UNIX variant on which a child process dies with its parent?

I have been studying the Linux kernel behaviour for quite some time now, and it's always been clear to me that: When a process dies, all its children are given back to the init process (PID 1) ...
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1answer
2k views

ERROR: init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) terminated with status 1

I'm getting the following errors every 10-30 seconds on a virtual Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 2 Server on Amazons EC2. Sep 23 09:57:05 ServerName init: ttyS0 (/dev/ttyS0) main process (1612) ...
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2answers
487 views

disabling ctrl-alt-del and /etc/init

My OS is RHEL 6.2 I disable Ctrl+Alt+Del by changing in /etc/init/control-alt-del.conf the line exec /sbin/shutdown -r now "Control-alt-del pressed" by exec /bin/true I'll be testing it next ...
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1answer
108 views

Difference between telinit and running scripts manually under rc*.d

I was trying to debug my Linux boot process. If I set the default runlevel to 2 or 3, my system hangs without giving me a prompt. I was able to get to runlevel 1 via a kernel parameter, and ran all ...
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init.d script is not starting under virtualbox

The script is in /etc/init.d: #!/bin/bash VMUSER=myname CURRDATE=(`date +"%m-%d-%Y"` + `date +"%H:%M:%S"`) CURRTIME=(`date +"%X"`) FILE=/home/myname/log/vm-services.log VBPATH=/usr/bin start(){ ...
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87 views

How can I replace root / filesystem with another filesystem?

When the Linux kernel starts up, it uses initrd as the root / filesystem, then replaces that with a filesystem partition in fstab. Based on a test in an early init script, I want to replace that root ...
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4answers
831 views

New parent process when the parent process dies

In UNIX, when a parent process disappears, I thought that all child processes reset init as their parent. Is this not correct all the time? Are there any exceptions?
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106 views

How to boot on a ramdisk?

I'm working on a linux embedded for a custom board with a ARM9 processor. My kernel version is : 2.6.33 I'm trying to boot on a ramdisk, kernel correctly mount the file system but failed to execute ...
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1answer
2k views

Minimal Linux with kernel and BusyBox: /etc/inittab is ignored, only /init is executed

I managed to create a small and fully functional live Linux CD which contains only kernel (compiled with default options) and BusyBox (compiled with default options + static, all applets present, ...
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CTRL-ALT-DEL for init 0?

On On my Debian 7 system the Ctrl-Alt-Del is this line below and is by default init 6 ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now But I want to turn for init 0 and not init 6 when I press ...
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1answer
87 views

Time that init waits before sending kill -9 upon shutdown?

As far as I understand the shutdown command: If I send a shutdown -h now init will try and stop all processes gracefully, wait a certain amount of time, then send kill -9. My question is: how long ...
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1answer
189 views

SIGKILLing after a grace period

I've seen a lot of process managers that try to do this. It was my understanding that you should only use SIGTERM to kill a process. The process could take an unknown amount of time to clean up after ...
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0answers
379 views

Server won't boot, kernel panic - not syncing

After a reboot of a CentOS 6.2 server we are getting a kernel panic with the following error: Kernel panic - not syncing: Attempted to kill init! Panic occurred, switching back to text console ...
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1answer
240 views

How do I set cron to run on background?

I am on ubuntu 12.04 and following this tutorial. I want to setup cron to run in the background but I don't have a chckconfig in sbin so I can't run sudo /sbin/chkconfig crond on I am fairly new to ...
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1answer
84 views

Emacs, complete list of color “keys”

If you want to customize the colors in Emacs, specifying them in the .emacs init file, without installing any extra package, and without using a pre-made theme, something like this seems to work: ...
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1answer
203 views

Dedicated-purpose, single application linux boxes

I'm designing an app that will be deployed/installed to a linux machine (perhaps Archlinux, but could be any distro and in fact I would actually prefer something lightweight and inside the Debian ...
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1answer
1k views

How does init determine which devices to modprobe?

I'm building a totally custom initramfs for a netbooting project and in the process learning a lot about it, but I'm a little puzzled by the loading of modules. I know modprobe can be used to load ...
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33 views

(nologin) root and id X re-spawning

Today I faced a strange issue on one of the test server. Server was set to Runlevel 5. But it didnt work and system changed to runlevel 3. It was showing "init: Id "x" respawning too fast: disabled ...
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1answer
1k views

When would you use pivot_root over switch_root?

I'm wanting to understand the Linux init process better in order to netboot a system over ceph rather than nfs. In the process I've come across two forms of switching root. One called switch_root, ...
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1answer
345 views

Init script leaves thousands of defunct processes

My problem is that I have an init script that is generating thousands of defunct bash processes. My goal is to have a program called "fr24feed" in its own screen session on boot. After looking at ...
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1answer
138 views

Application lags if started from init.d?

I have a program (pre-compiled binary) that, when started manually on linux, runs fine. It has a CLI that I use to enter commands. This program is a software router, I can connect to it's CLI to ...
2
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1answer
169 views

Check `fsck` automatically

I need to run fsck so that it automatically fixes problems (i.e., fsck -y). And because I am using "systemd" instead of "init" in the linux system, I cannot modify the /etc/default/rcS. So what ...
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137 views

Which getty should I use for /dev/tty1 - tty6 text consoles in linux, agetty or something other

I'm configuring LFS linux and I want to select right "getty" for /etc/inittab to handle text consoles /dev/tty1 - /dev/tty6 (the text consoles handled by linux kernel, with output on first display). ...
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How to fix boot into initramfs prompt and “mount: can't read '/etc/fstab': No such file or directory” and “No init found”?

Installing a new system using a GPT partitioned disk dedicated to a single partition, ext4 formatted, extlinux (version 4.05) as bootloader, Ubuntu Core version 13.10 amd64 as rootfs, and Ubuntu ...
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Shall I expect faster boot when I boot my system with run level 1

I understand that when I set runlevel as 1, my system will boot with very basic set of commands. Does that mean the system will boot faster as compared to run level 5 or 3?
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1answer
7k views

How to find out in which order /etc/init.d scripts are load on Debian?

I want to run one sysvinit script before another and figured out how to do that. To make sure, this actually happens in the the order I like, I would like to see a list, in which order that happens. ...
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How to determine which init system is used? [duplicate]

Is there a way to determine which init system is being used in Linux? (such as sysvinit, upstart, systemd, etc.) I don't care if it can be programmatically determined, I just want to know how I can ...
0
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1answer
217 views

Full path name of bash? and base process of Linux?

I am new to Linux and I recently had a test at school which had the following questions: What is the full path name of bash? What is the base process of Linux? I couldn't answer these. Does anyone ...
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1answer
151 views

How are the services exactly starting in (K)Ubuntu?

I have latest Kubuntu. I have installed mysql. I was looking into the /etc/init. I see the following: In /etc/init/mysql.conf description "MySQL Server" ...