The history of Unix systems and their main components. Please DO NOT USE this tag for shell-related questions; use "command-history" instead.

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1answer
341 views

What is “Charlie &” in the gecos field on OpenBSD for root?

Question: what is "Charlie &" for the root user? I didn't gave "Charlie &" for gecos field, I think I didn't gave any at all. ps.: the "/sbin/nologin" doesn't matters, I just tested ...
2
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2answers
265 views

Is the GNU Coreutils copied from Unix?

Linux itself is not a copy of Unix because one can argue it simply conforms to the POSIX standard. However, how about the GNU Coreutils which contains utilities like ls, cd and rm, etc...? Is there ...
2
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2answers
102 views

Was 'diff' included in the first version of Linux

What is the list of programs that were available in the first public version of Linux distribution (not just kernel)? I am specially concerned when this distribution was released and if diff utility ...
2
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1answer
81 views

What is the meaning of the mode mask names from stat(2) and chmod(2)?

The stat calls have a series of symbolic names for the various bits in the mode field. From the stat(2) manual page: The following mask values are defined for the file mode component of the st_mode ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Why is the Intel HD Graphics driver called i915?

The only references to i915 I can find are indeed to the linux kernel driver for the intel chips. Intel just seems to call them HD graphics whatever. Intel 915 seems to refer to some Pentium 4 ...
2
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1answer
281 views

sudo ls not showing hidden files on Linux

Today I discovered that sudo ls shows hidden files (that is, those that have names starting with .) on OS X. This surprised me so much that I asked a question about this behaviour, which I still find ...
2
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1answer
242 views

SSH Authentication Mechanism

Doing a personal research project and I'm wondering: Why does SSH do its own mechanism negotiation rather than use SASL? At first I thought it might be to ensure confidentiality of the whole session, ...
2
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1answer
72 views

Why do GNU tools use non-matching ` and ' to quote errors?

GNU tools often output error and warning messages with parts of the line (e.g. filenames, syntax errors, invalid dates, etc) quoted with non-matching quotes: ` and ' e.g. From the GNU coreutils FAQ: ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Unix vs OS360 (History)

I read the history of Unix operating system and also read the original Unix paper by Thompson and Ritchie. In their paper they mention some key features which Unix uses. Some terminologies including ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Why is the xargs -i option deprecated?

I was reading the Linux man page for xargs recently, and it appears that the -i option is deprecated. To quote from the documentation: -i[replace-str], --replace[=replace-str] This ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

Why is vdir still around?

After installing Debian 8, I started poking around /bin (as I'm always wont to do), and I noticed that ls and vdir share, not only the same manpage (except for the whatis line), but the exact same ...
2
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1answer
648 views

Is the Linux implementation of the system configuration “variable” ARG_MAX different from other system variables and is it POSIX compliant?

In the shell, as explained in this this Q&A in the context of expansion, depending on the system, the maximum length of a command's argument is initially constrained by the kernel setup. The ...
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0answers
44 views

put string to commandline

I am making a bashfunction that show a menu binded to pgdown to browse through a a window which list my history (like 4dos/4nt etcetera). I have made so one line is always highlighted. $pos is ...
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0answers
39 views

What is the background of the program segmentation?

Each program is separated into several segments like: code segment data segment stack segment heap segment But who was responsible for that progression? The compiler and linker has to support that ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Where does the name of i3 (the WM) come from?

I was thinking about this, so I searched the i3 website, but did not find anything. I was alarmed by the thought, that the name was ie (internet explorer) in leetspeak. It might also be a weird ...
2
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0answers
151 views

Why Unix is sometimes referred as UN*X or *nix? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why is there a * When There is Mention of Unix Throughout the Internet? Why Unix is sometimes referred as UN*X or *nix? Asterisk usually means that some letters are ...
1
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2answers
351 views

Where is 'kernel panic' used?

Is the name kernel panic being used outside of Linux-based systems?
1
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2answers
392 views

Why are HTTP operations usually written in all caps? [on hold]

I'm looking for the history of this. Why do we usually write HTTP POST or OPTIONS operations in all caps?
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4answers
60 views

Why is it find dir -name file and not find -n dir file?

I've searched around for this but I couldn't find anything on it. I've always wanted to know, why is it that most other built in bash commands have the format of command -flag arg1 arg2, i.e. cp -r ...
1
vote
1answer
310 views

Why has '-' been chosen as the backup file suffix for certain Unix system files?

Example: /etc/group-, /etc/passwd- Is there any motivation behind choice of the - sign (e.g. easier to recognize, process, etc.)?
1
vote
1answer
487 views

Does CentOS fall into System V family? How is it considered to be while comparing with Unix System V family?

CentOS is "derived entirely from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) distribution" (more here). Does it fall into any UNIX System V family? Such as PDP-11 or etc? If not, where does CentOS stands ...
1
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2answers
55 views

Why was shar written if tar already existed?

According to the BSD man pages, tar first appeared in Version 7 UNIX in 1979, but shar first appeared in 4.4BSD, which was released in 1994. What were the perceived advantages to shar at the time? ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

History of UNIX not including current directory in $PATH

In the UNIX world, it's well understood that you need to prefix binaries in the current directory with ./ in order to run them: . is not in $PATH by default. This is to avoid evil binaries overriding ...
1
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1answer
292 views

How can I find out the IP address from which a user logged in?

We have two RHEL 6.4 64-bit boxes in our environment. They are accessed remotely via putty. The password of user ABC on one RHEL box is shared by multiple users. User ABC logged into server from ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Zeller's congruence and cal command

According to Zeller's Congruence, the day of 29 Feb, 1600 is Tuesday. However, the cal command shows it as Friday.Is there a bug in cal's code or a limit on the range of years which Zeller's ...
1
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2answers
65 views

Why doesn't unix filesystem store creation time of a file? [duplicate]

Is there any historic reason? Stat stores last accessed time, last modified time and last changed time , but not the creation time! Isn't that important information. I can't understand why the ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Why is uninterruptible sleep indicated by 'D'?

From "man ps": R = Running or Runnable S = interruptable Sleep T = sTopped Z = Zombie D = uninterruptible sleep (usually IO) Where does this D come from?
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2answers
104 views

Why are user account on remote server called shell account

Why are user accounts on a remote server called shell account , remote account sounds like a more intuitive name what is the reason behind this very unintuitive name ???
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2answers
174 views

What was the paid only period in history of SuSE?

Around version 7.0 (? just guessing) SuSE became paid only distribution (i.e. you had to pay to get the copy), after several releases SuSE came back to free + paid model. Now -- the most important to ...
1
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1answer
177 views

Use case for /usr/bin/lessecho

I can not come up with an example of how I could/would use lessecho. The description in the man page is fairly straight forward but is not helping me come up with a use case: DESCRIPTION ...
1
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1answer
55 views

'revert' bash to searching correct history file [closed]

I hope this makes sense as I explain it, so please bear with me! I recently decided it would be a good idea to start backing up my history, and did so with the following added to .bashrc: export ...
1
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1answer
68 views

Relation between emacs and bash terminal shortcuts [closed]

I would like to know what is the relation between emacs and bash terminal shortcuts.
1
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1answer
158 views

Where did the default GTK2 theme (raleigh) theme come from?

Who made the theme? When was the theme made? Was it made originally for a specific distro? Does the theme have anything to do with the city of Raleigh?
1
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1answer
257 views

Who was James Farber and why was he important to Unix?

I've been reading papers on Plan 9 from Bell Labs. In the paper on why Plan 9's not dead yet, around page 18, the author mentions "Farber". Googling reveals this to be a James Farber, but all I can ...
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1answer
129 views

view history of opened programs Manjaro Linux

Is there a way to view a log, or history of all programs opened in Manjaro Linux?
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1answer
26 views

Behold System V; what about systems I-IV?

System V (by AT&T) is the ancestral Unix, and I have used it. But I have never read or heard anything about systems I-IV, other than they existed once upon a time in the dim past. How effective ...
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0answers
26 views

Etymology of “descriptor” in “file descriptor”

The choice of the word descriptor has always struct me as odd. "Index" or "id" seem like more obvious alternatives. Is there a known rationale for the choosing the word "descriptor"? I guess ...
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0answers
43 views

What are the oldest irc clients I can still use on linux ?

I have a weakness for nostalgia and some interest in Unix history, therefore I would like to know which are the oldest still usable irc clients that can be run on Linux. In this context I value age ...
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0answers
116 views

how to copy files using TTY teminal from one pc to another connected through same home network

In my academic lab my friend copied files from one computer to another that were serially connected using the tty4. How could he have done this if there was no internet and he didn't install any new ...
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0answers
69 views

Is Cat-v.org an official subsidiary website of Plan 9 from Bell Labs?

I was wondering, since it seems to be one of the only websites where I can seemingly legally download historic Unix documents.
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0answers
24 views

history - bash, dash, zsh and .profile [duplicate]

For a long time I have been wondering about the existence of many shells in GNU/Linux. To make the question a bit focused I have used only three shells - bash, dash and zsh. From wikipedia articles ...
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0answers
59 views

Where does backtick and single quote come from when denoting commands e.g. `prog'? [duplicate]

When referring to commands in tutorials, man pages, and articles I see authors use the backtick and single quote in this way: `./configure' `make' I believe I have seen gcc denote points of failure ...
1
vote
1answer
425 views

What is the difference between UNIX and UNIX Like? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is Linux a Unix? I have heard Linux was not UNIX (I guess it still isn't) but that it was UNIX Like. Some people will just say "Linux is UNIX" or say "Linux, Solaris, ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Why does xargs -I imply -L 1

I've seen Why does 'find -exec cmd {} +' need to end in '{} +'? which explains why {} + has to be at the end of the -exec cmd(*), and now I'd like to know why GNU xargs reverts to one ...
0
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2answers
812 views

Where does the word GNU come from?

GNU is a Unix-like operating system. That means it is a collection of many programs: applications, libraries, developer tools, even games. The development of GNU, started in January 1984, is known ...
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4answers
139 views

How to run Unix?

I always wanted to try Unix but I can't seem to find an ISO file or somewhere to buy it. Is Unix published for the whole wide world to use or is it a special OS only for high-class servers, mainframes ...
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3answers
2k views

Who wrote the “Linux kernel” (Linus Torvalds and his team)?

Who are the authors of the pure Linux kernel from scratch, which was integrated with GNU tools and formed the full GNU/Linux Operating system in the 1990s? I have read some wiki articles but I haven't ...
0
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2answers
95 views

what are considered old and powerfull commands? [closed]

I came across the terms awk and sed, awk goes once through all lines and performs a task whenever a line meets a certain condition, sed can manipulate a stream of input before it goes further to the ...
0
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3answers
83 views

get IP address who modified a file

I am looking a way to to get the history of a file, like the modification date, who modified this file (ip address or username), the changed lines Is there a way to get the IP address or username of ...
0
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1answer
78 views

What can be considered as operating system? [closed]

I am talking about GNU/Linux but not about GNU or Linux! I know that Kernel is the core component in operating system but I want to know what defines the "operating system" (What can be considered as ...