The history of Unix systems and their main components.

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1answer
17 views

Why did “argument can be squisehd against option” prevail over “argument is always separate”?

Inspired by the recent question Why does the specific sequence of options matter for tar command?, in which the asker learned why tar -cfv test.tar *.jpg doesn't work, I'd like to ask a followup: ...
0
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1answer
55 views

Did Linux have a bug where reading /dev/null would crash the system?

About 10 years ago I've been told by someone that for years Linux used to crash whenever you tried to read /dev/null (ie. cat /dev/null). Is this actually true? Did such a bug exist? And if it did, ...
-1
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0answers
20 views

What are the milestones in U&Linux history concerning the emergence of graphical Interface? [closed]

At the beginning, the shell was the only interface for the User, He was able to send through it signals to other processes or launch them or even directly sending calls to the Kernel. Yet the shell ...
32
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1answer
4k views

Why is the UNIX system call kill named 'kill'?

I'm curious about the history of the name, it seems to me that the 'kill' system call could have been named 'signal', and the 'signal' system call could have been named 'handle'. I was wondering ...
0
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2answers
72 views

what are considered old and powerfull commands? [closed]

I came across the terms awk and sed, awk goes once through all lines and performs a task whenever a line meets a certain condition, sed can manipulate a stream of input before it goes further to the ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Sourcing a redistributable script by default

I am creating a bash script which I wish to release on github. The script needs to access the command history but this is not possible without sourcing that script. I don't want users to put it in ...
1
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1answer
263 views

Why has '-' been chosen as the backup file suffix for certain Unix system files?

Example: /etc/group-, /etc/passwd- Is there any motivation behind choice of the - sign (e.g. easier to recognize, process, etc.)?
5
votes
1answer
138 views

Why does 'find -exec cmd {} +' need to end in '{} +'?

Preface: I understand the difference between -exec {} \; & -exec {} +. I also don't have a problem as such, I am just curious about the semantics of find. When ending the -exec argument with + ...
5
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3answers
633 views

What's the rationale to have option to use power of 1000 instead of 1024 in df?

I'm curious about df -H and df -h, then man df tells me: -h, --human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G) -H, --si likewise, but use powers of ...
0
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1answer
52 views

Syntactic differences in cp -r and how to overcome them

Let's say we are in a blank directory. Then, the following commands: mkdir dir1 cp -r dir1 dir2 Yield two (blank) directories, dir1 and dir2, where dir2 has been created as a copy of dir1. ...
3
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1answer
60 views

Has Unix been used by accountants and other non-programmers at AT&T in the 70s and 80s?

In the short documentary, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie Explain UNIX (Bell Labs) it is mentioned, that Unix is not only an OS, but also a system around which a community could form. I find ...
0
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1answer
61 views

What does “dd” stand for? [duplicate]

What does dd stand for? I've always referred to it colloquially as "Disk Destroyer", but what are the "official" words that make up the acronym/command? According to this link and this link it could ...
3
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1answer
96 views

The history of ../ [duplicate]

I was wondering if there's a known reason behind the use of .. to represent the parent of the current directory in most operating systems. The reason I ask this question is because I think that the ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

What is ENOANO (No Anode) intended to be used for?

This question is merely for idle curiosity, but I suspect others will be curious as well. Searching through errno.h (of Linux 2.6) I found ENOANO "No Anode". There is no sign of a "No cathode" error. ...
3
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1answer
123 views

Can somebody list the earliest public source-code repositories and when they opened? [closed]

Nowadays people only know github, some people know gitlab, some people know bitbucket (mercurial) but other than that people seem to have forgotten there were others as well. I know about freshmeat ...
19
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3answers
248 views

How did the Linux Kernel project track bugs in the Early Days?

We all know that Linus Torvalds created Git because of issues with Bitkeeper. What is not known (at least to me) is, how were issues/tickets/bugs tracked up until then? I tried but didn't get anything ...
0
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0answers
21 views

history - bash, dash, zsh and .profile [duplicate]

For a long time I have been wondering about the existence of many shells in GNU/Linux. To make the question a bit focused I have used only three shells - bash, dash and zsh. From wikipedia articles ...
9
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1answer
149 views

Why didn't GNU Info succeed man?

As per my knowledge/understanding both help and man came at the same time or have very little time difference between them. Then GNU Info came in and from what I have seen is much more verbose, much ...
1
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1answer
81 views

Use case for /usr/bin/lessecho

I can not come up with an example of how I could/would use lessecho. The description in the man page is fairly straight forward but is not helping me come up with a use case: DESCRIPTION ...
3
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1answer
70 views

BSD Net/1 was a free fully operating system?

I think that the old BSD Net/1 was not a fully operating system, but an add-on to 4.3BSD for VAX, as I realize from http://gunkies.org/wiki/Net/1 and http://gunkies.org/wiki/Net/2 Is it right? In ...
-3
votes
3answers
288 views

Why is “shebang” called “shebang”?

Does "shebang" mean "bang she"? Why not "hebang" as "bang he"?
22
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1answer
576 views

When and how was the double-dash (--) introduced as an end of options delimiter in Unix/Linux?

I don't think the shell/utilities in historical Unix nor in something as "recent" as 4.4BSD supported using a double-dash(or two consecutive hyphens) as an end of options delimiter. With FreeBSD, you ...
2
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3answers
79 views

Why is NetworkManager package name upper case?

All other software packages are lower case, so why NetworkManager upper case?
1
vote
1answer
124 views

How would you get all users history

I know there is the $HISTFILE variable where i can find the currently logged in users history-file, but how can i be sure to get every history file on the server I was thinking of the ...
31
votes
5answers
912 views

How to save a command you entered without executing it? [duplicate]

Every Linux user has experienced this annoying thing: you begin typing a long and boring command, then realise you should have executed another one before. How to save the first one to execute it ...
16
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2answers
2k views

Who is responsible for the Linux kernel?

As of today, there are many Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora, Gentoo, Mint, Debian, etc. These distributions update at different cycles. Ubuntu seems to update its kernel weekly or monthly, ...
18
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1answer
955 views

If chown can change groups, why was chgrp created?

So there's chown which lets you change the owner and group of files and/or directories. But there's also chgrp which only changes the group. Why was chgrp created? Isn't it redundant?
3
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3answers
147 views

History of Bash globbing

Is there a historical reason why Bash "globbing" and regular expressions are not identical? For example, I believe that in Bash [1-2]* matches anything that starts with a 1 or a 2 followed by anything ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

what is the original command to create a file? [closed]

we can create a file by a lot of commands: cat > foo.txt echo 'This is a test' > foo.txt touch foo.txt vi foo.txt (or any text-editor) my questions are: What is the original command to ...
4
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2answers
277 views

Why wasn't `creat` called `create`? [duplicate]

Was it just to save typing one letter? I don't think C function names were limited to five characters at the time, as strcmp and unlink are probably just as old. I'm hoping someone who was involved ...
0
votes
1answer
837 views

What does chmod stand for?

In order to memorize a command, it is usually a good idea to learn where it's name comes from. For example, cp comes from copy. usermod means "User Modifiy" (at least I guess so). Where does chmod ...
2
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2answers
129 views

How to set the number of commands history recalls

I am using bash. To browse my command history I am calling the history command which I believe is calling the Gnu program of the same name. (I don't know if there's a better bash specific way). In ...
10
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2answers
154 views

Possible to see dead proccesses?

In man ps, it clearly states the different states a process can have on Linux. D Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO) R Running or runnable (on run queue) S Interruptible sleep (waiting for an ...
38
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1answer
2k views

What happened to bzip1?

bzip2 had been a de facto standard for quite strong compression throughout many years already. I myself had typed the bzip2 command thousands of times already, which makes me wonder - what happened to ...
3
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1answer
78 views

Where can i find any information about ancient doshell(8)?

I check the openvt manual by running "man openvt" command, and i found doshell(8) under "SEE ALSO" section: But there's no manual if i do "man 8 doshell": I checked the online manual at ...
6
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1answer
371 views

Can the 25 years of development of the Linux kernel be qualified or abstracted in layman's terms? [closed]

The Linux kernel is almost 25 years old. If I had to come up with the short version on the development history of the Linux kernel since 1991(its inception date), and in partcular since 1994 (1.0.0) ...
19
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1answer
743 views

At what point did the /home directory appear?

Originally in Unix, /usr was used for user (home) directories. So if I had a user named alex, my home directory would be /usr/alex. (Interestingly, Plan 9, the successor to Unix, still has user ...
4
votes
1answer
125 views

What's the story behind command file's suggestion?

While I'm reading file(1) I noticed this in the man page (emphasis mine): When adding local definitions to /etc/magic, make sure to preserve these keywords. Users depend on knowing that all the ...
1
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2answers
71 views

Why are user account on remote server called shell account

Why are user accounts on a remote server called shell account , remote account sounds like a more intuitive name what is the reason behind this very unintuitive name ???
6
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2answers
211 views

Regex `/pattern/g` and ed `:g/pattern/`: which came first, and why `g`?

The g option (e.g. s/pattern/replacement/g) for many tools that use regex-style pattern matching and the :g command in ed, ex, vi, and vim have pretty similar usage and meaning: match the given regex ...
4
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2answers
2k views

What does the “rc” stand for in /etc/rc.d? [duplicate]

Does anybody have an idea about the full form of rc.d in, for example, /etc/rc.d? It contains scripts to used to control the starting, stopping and restarting of daemons. But what exactly is the ...
1
vote
1answer
274 views

Is the Linux implementation of the system configuration “variable” ARG_MAX different from other system variables and is it POSIX compliant?

In the shell, as explained in this this Q&A in the context of expansion, depending on the system, the maximum length of a command's argument is initially constrained by the kernel setup. The ...
1
vote
1answer
140 views

What is “Charlie &” in the gecos field on OpenBSD for root?

Question: what is "Charlie &" for the root user? I didn't gave "Charlie &" for gecos field, I think I didn't gave any at all. ps.: the "/sbin/nologin" doesn't matters, I just tested ...
0
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0answers
126 views

Why BitchX is called BitchX?

Well, the title is pretty much self-explanatory, but for sake of completeness, I'm curious to know the reason for the name of BitchX. I searched on internet for etymology but it was a fail. I hope ...
79
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3answers
13k views

Why are tar archive formats switching to xz compression to replace bzip2 and what about gzip?

More and more tar archives use the xz format based on LZMA2 for compression instead of the traditional bzip2(bz2) compression. In fact kernel.org made a late "Good-bye bzip2" announcement, 27th Dec. ...
4
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1answer
77 views

Is the historical Unix V5 tr command padding behavior of set2 different from what we consider today “classic” System V (1983-1988) behavior?

The tr command is almost 40 years old. It seemingly appeared in Unix for the first time in 1973 with Unix V4. The source for this is not available. Here is probably the second oldest available Unix ...
3
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1answer
137 views

When did Automake switch to using Perl

I tried to get remove Perl from my Ubuntu machine, but found that automake not only depends on Perl but itself is a Perl program. I read somewhere this was not always the case. Today I looked in the ...
15
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2answers
510 views

Use of ^ as a shell metacharacter

I wrote a small script today which contained grep -q ^local0 /etc/syslog.conf During review, a coworker suggested that ^local0 be quoted because ^ means "pipe" in the Bourne shell. Surprised by ...
4
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1answer
251 views

Presentation Tools Back In The Day

Which tools were around »back in the day« to aid presentation Unix/Linux environments? I just wondered how somebody would accomplish something like slides in a e.g. text-based environment or low-end ...
5
votes
4answers
342 views

Does Linux use original Unix code or do they share the idea? [duplicate]

Does the Linux kernel use original Unix code or do they share the idea? He mocked me and said it's a stupid question to ask and of course they share the idea not the code. Since both are written in C, ...