The history of Unix systems and their main components.

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19
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1answer
226 views

When and how was the double-dash (--) introduced as an end of options delimiter in Unix/Linux?

I don't think the shell/utilities in historical Unix nor in something as "recent" as 4.4BSD supported using a double-dash(or two consecutive hyphens) as an end of options delimiter. With FreeBSD, you ...
2
votes
2answers
39 views

Why is NetworkManager package name upper case?

All other software packages are lower case, so why NetworkManager upper case?
1
vote
1answer
34 views

How would you get all users history

I know there is the $HISTFILE variable where i can find the currently logged in users history-file, but how can i be sure to get every history file on the server I was thinking of the ...
29
votes
5answers
715 views

How to save a command you entered without executing it? [duplicate]

Every Linux user has experienced this annoying thing: you begin typing a long and boring command, then realise you should have executed another one before. How to save the first one to execute it ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Who is responsible for the Linux kernel?

As of today, there are many Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora, Gentoo, Mint, Debian, etc. These distributions update at different cycles. Ubuntu seems to update its kernel weekly or monthly, ...
17
votes
1answer
820 views

If chown can change groups, why was chgrp created?

So there's chown which lets you change the owner and group of files and/or directories. But there's also chgrp which only changes the group. Why was chgrp created? Isn't it redundant?
3
votes
3answers
105 views

History of Bash globbing

Is there a historical reason why Bash "globbing" and regular expressions are not identical? For example, I believe that in Bash [1-2]* matches anything that starts with a 1 or a 2 followed by anything ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

what is the original command to create a file? [closed]

we can create a file by a lot of commands: cat > foo.txt echo 'This is a test' > foo.txt touch foo.txt vi foo.txt (or any text-editor) my questions are: What is the original command to ...
4
votes
2answers
96 views

Why wasn't `creat` called `create`? [duplicate]

Was it just to save typing one letter? I don't think C function names were limited to five characters at the time, as strcmp and unlink are probably just as old. I'm hoping someone who was involved ...
0
votes
1answer
315 views

What does chmod stand for?

In order to memorize a command, it is usually a good idea to learn where it's name comes from. For example, cp comes from copy. usermod means "User Modifiy" (at least I guess so). Where does chmod ...
2
votes
2answers
29 views

How to set the number of commands history recalls

I am using bash. To browse my command history I am calling the history command which I believe is calling the Gnu program of the same name. (I don't know if there's a better bash specific way). In ...
7
votes
1answer
94 views

Possible to see dead proccesses?

In man ps, it clearly states the different states a process can have on Linux. D Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO) R Running or runnable (on run queue) S Interruptible sleep (waiting for an ...
37
votes
1answer
1k views

What happened to bzip1?

bzip2 had been a de facto standard for quite strong compression throughout many years already. I myself had typed the bzip2 command thousands of times already, which makes me wonder - what happened to ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Where can i find any information about ancient doshell(8)?

I check the openvt manual by running "man openvt" command, and i found doshell(8) under "SEE ALSO" section: But there's no manual if i do "man 8 doshell": I checked the online manual at ...
4
votes
1answer
191 views

Can the 25 years of development of the Linux kernel be qualified or abstracted in layman's terms? [closed]

The Linux kernel is almost 25 years old. If I had to come up with the short version on the development history of the Linux kernel since 1991(its inception date), and in partcular since 1994 (1.0.0) ...
19
votes
1answer
686 views

At what point did the /home directory appear?

Originally in Unix, /usr was used for user (home) directories. So if I had a user named alex, my home directory would be /usr/alex. (Interestingly, Plan 9, the successor to Unix, still has user ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

What's the story behind command file's suggestion?

While I'm reading file(1) I noticed this in the man page (emphasis mine): When adding local definitions to /etc/magic, make sure to preserve these keywords. Users depend on knowing that all the ...
1
vote
2answers
55 views

Why are user account on remote server called shell account

Why are user accounts on a remote server called shell account , remote account sounds like a more intuitive name what is the reason behind this very unintuitive name ???
6
votes
2answers
163 views

Regex `/pattern/g` and ed `:g/pattern/`: which came first, and why `g`?

The g option (e.g. s/pattern/replacement/g) for many tools that use regex-style pattern matching and the :g command in ed, ex, vi, and vim have pretty similar usage and meaning: match the given regex ...
1
vote
2answers
306 views

What does the “rc” stand for in /etc/rc.d? [duplicate]

Does anybody have an idea about the full form of rc.d in, for example, /etc/rc.d? It contains scripts to used to control the starting, stopping and restarting of daemons. But what exactly is the ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Is the Linux implementation of the system configuration “variable” ARG_MAX different from other system variables and is it POSIX compliant?

In the shell, as explained in this this Q&A in the context of expansion, depending on the system, the maximum length of a command's argument is initially constrained by the kernel setup. The ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

What is “Charlie &” in the gecos field on OpenBSD for root?

Question: what is "Charlie &" for the root user? I didn't gave "Charlie &" for gecos field, I think I didn't gave any at all. ps.: the "/sbin/nologin" doesn't matters, I just tested ...
0
votes
0answers
81 views

Why BitchX is called BitchX?

Well, the title is pretty much self-explanatory, but for sake of completeness, I'm curious to know the reason for the name of BitchX. I searched on internet for etymology but it was a fail. I hope ...
67
votes
4answers
6k views

Why are tar archive formats switching to xz compression to replace bzip2 and what about gzip?

More and more tar archives use the xz format based on LZMA2 for compression instead of the traditional bzip2(bz2) compression. In fact kernel.org made a late "Good-bye bzip2" announcement, 27th Dec. ...
4
votes
1answer
58 views

Is the historical Unix V5 tr command padding behavior of set2 different from what we consider today “classic” System V (1983-1988) behavior?

The tr command is almost 40 years old. It seemingly appeared in Unix for the first time in 1973 with Unix V4. The source for this is not available. Here is probably the second oldest available Unix ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

When did Automake switch to using Perl

I tried to get remove Perl from my Ubuntu machine, but found that automake not only depends on Perl but itself is a Perl program. I read somewhere this was not always the case. Today I looked in the ...
14
votes
2answers
428 views

Use of ^ as a shell metacharacter

I wrote a small script today which contained grep -q ^local0 /etc/syslog.conf During review, a coworker suggested that ^local0 be quoted because ^ means "pipe" in the Bourne shell. Surprised by ...
4
votes
1answer
190 views

Presentation Tools Back In The Day

Which tools were around »back in the day« to aid presentation Unix/Linux environments? I just wondered how somebody would accomplish something like slides in a e.g. text-based environment or low-end ...
5
votes
4answers
307 views

Does Linux use original Unix code or do they share the idea? [duplicate]

Does the Linux kernel use original Unix code or do they share the idea? He mocked me and said it's a stupid question to ask and of course they share the idea not the code. Since both are written in C, ...
71
votes
3answers
10k views

Why is the root directory denoted by a / sign?

I have done some research about this on Google, but the results were cloudy. Why is the / sign used to denote the root directory. Are there any solid reasons behind it?
4
votes
1answer
377 views

What does the “f” in fdisk stand for?

gdisk stands for GPT fdisk. cfdisk stands for curses fdisk. And so on and so forth. However, what does the original "f" in fdisk stand for? The only things I can think of would be either "files" or ...
3
votes
4answers
192 views

How do you find what keys the “erase” and “line-kill” characters are in Ubuntu?

I'm new to Unix and have bought today a copy of "The Unix Programming Environment". I'm trying out the stuff from the book. But some of them are not working as expected like : To kill a line and ...
1
vote
1answer
810 views

Why does halt not turn the machine off? [duplicate]

shutdown now kills everything and then powers down the machine. halt kills everything and then... there is no step 2. It will sit, running but not doing anything, until people stop arguing over ...
42
votes
4answers
4k views

Why does no one use the true Bourne shell as /bin/sh?

I've noticed that basically no system I've ever worked with has /bin/sh as a real executable. It's always a symlink to dash, bash in POSIX mode, or something similar. Why? What are the disadvantages ...
2
votes
4answers
223 views

Is the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard a UNIX standard or a GNU/Linux standard?

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard says where to put stuff in a UNIX distribution. Is the FHS used/designed for use outside of GNU/Linux, or is it mostly limited to GNU/Linux?
4
votes
1answer
118 views

Why does System V traditionally symlink /bin to /usr/bin?

This systemd wiki page about the /usr merge, under Myth #6, states that /bin has traditionally been a symlink to /usr/bin on System V UNIX. What is the motivation for this? For backwards ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

What does it mean when something says that UNIX device files are static?

I've been reading up on udev. In the "overview" section, Wikipedia states that "unlike traditional Unix systems, where the device nodes in the /dev directory have been a static set of files, the Linux ...
10
votes
2answers
366 views

/usr/bin/ptx: Can you provide a use case or two?

I was going through the list of files included in coreutils and I was able to come up with an example of how I could personally use all of the commands provided except for ptx. Can you give one or two ...
115
votes
5answers
10k views

What's the story behind Super Cow Powers?

As we know, apt-get has Super Cow Powers and aptitude does not: $ apt-get --help | grep -i cow This APT has Super Cow Powers. $ aptitude --help | grep -i cow ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

“globbing” (*) comes from “global command”… Huh?

According to legend, in the early days what we now call "globbing" (i.e. using expressions like e.g. *.c, ./*.p?) was supported by one certain program /etc/glob, whose name in turn derived from ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Where does backtick and single quote come from when denoting commands e.g. `prog'? [duplicate]

When referring to commands in tutorials, man pages, and articles I see authors use the backtick and single quote in this way: `./configure' `make' I believe I have seen gcc denote points of failure ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Why has the ANSI 3.64 standard been withdrawn?

From the Wikipedia "ANSI escape code" article: The name "ANSI escape sequence" dates from 1981 when ANSI adopted ECMA-48 as the standard ANSI X3.64 (and later, in 1997, withdrew it). Does ...
23
votes
3answers
3k views

What is the purpose of the hash command?

If you run hash it shows the path of all commands run since the hash was last reset (hash -r) [root@c04c ~]# hash hash: hash table empty [root@c04c ~]# whoami root [root@c04c ~]# hash hits ...
8
votes
2answers
876 views

How can you log every command typed

How can you log every command someone has entered into the shell? I'm asking on both the basis of protecting yourself if you are logged into someone else's server and something breaks, or if someone ...
4
votes
2answers
86 views

Why is the default choice for -I argument '{}'?

It seems you can pass in a variable name like 'file' for -I argument of xargs, but there are a plethora of examples that use {}. Is this because of the backward compatibility? Or does it help with the ...
6
votes
1answer
172 views

Where does this convention for quotation marks (`` …'') come from? [closed]

Frequently I get asked the question: ``K., where does this convention for quotation marks come from? You know, the one with the two grave accents introducing a quoted string and two regular ...
68
votes
3answers
4k views

Why not use “which”? What to use then?

When looking for the path to an executable or checking what would happen would you enter a command name in a Unix shell, there's a plethora of different utilities (which, type, command, whence, where, ...
24
votes
1answer
2k views

Were all Unix commands re-written in Linux?

I would like to know which commands were re-written for Linux and which were retained from Unix? I'm new to Linux.
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Who was James Farber and why was he important to Unix?

I've been reading papers on Plan 9 from Bell Labs. In the paper on why Plan 9's not dead yet, around page 18, the author mentions "Farber". Googling reveals this to be a James Farber, but all I can ...
1
vote
2answers
166 views

Is the GNU Coreutils copied from Unix?

Linux itself is not a copy of Unix because one can argue it simply conforms to the POSIX standard. However, how about the GNU Coreutils which contains utilities like ls, cd and rm, etc...? Is there ...