A hard link is file system entry that associates a name with another file on a file system.

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288 views

Link value is 2 by default for folders

Can anyone help me to understand the logic behind the link value being "2" for the first time when we create any folders/ directory in linux. I searched a lot , but couldn't get satisfactory logic
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1answer
1k views

How to safely remove hard-link to home folder?

In a folder owned by my user /sites/Website there is a dir named ~. When I cd to this directory, I am redirected to ~/, my home folder. At first I thought this was a symbolic link, but doing ls ...
2
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2answers
29 views

Can files with different inum be hard linked?

I am a new Linux user learning from Arch Linux and recently Linux From Scratch (7.7). I set up a new installation of AL to be my LFS host; I manually (and also with the provided bash script) checked ...
2
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2answers
48 views

Several hard-links with different metadata in Linux using Ext4

Is it possible for Ext4 file systems (or maybe another one understood by Linux) to assign different metadata (like modification time, owner, access rights) to several hard-links that refer to the same ...
2
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3answers
549 views

Forcibly create directory hard link(s)?

I understand the reasoning why nearly every unix version doesn't allow hard-linking of directories (in fact HFS+ on OS X is the only one I know, but even that isn't made easy to do yourself). However, ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Generate SFV file, optimizing hard links

I'm currently running cfv -C -rr to generate a SFV file that contains the CRC32 checksums of all files in all subdirectories. The issue is that because there are so many hardlinks, this process is ...
2
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2answers
69 views

Use the same file link for both Linux and Windows

As in the title, is it even possible to do so? I mean, can I create a link on Linux and than make this link valid also on Windows? Use-case I have the folder /media/Data/DownloadedMusic on a NTFS ...
2
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0answers
477 views

Multiple Linux or Unix Distributions, Same Home Partition or Data?

To avoid conflicts I have always installed multiple Linux and Unix distributions each with it's own home partion or directory, and in the era of 3TB hard drives this is often very practical; I also do ...
2
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0answers
98 views

Hard links vs. Soft links: When would you want to use one over the other? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What is the difference between symbolic and hard links? Today, my teacher talked about the differences between 'hard links' and 'soft links', but she never really ...
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3answers
374 views

Seemingly Inconsistent Behavior for “ln” & “ln -s”

As we all know, the ln command creates a link, with the default being a hard link and the -s option creating a symlink. The general syntax is ln [-s] OLD NEW, where OLD is the file you are linking to ...
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1answer
1k views

How do I manually modify an inode?

I am using Ubuntu Linux and, just for fun, I want to create a hardlink to a directory (as seen here). Because I'm just doing this for fun, I'm not looking for any sort of pre-developed ...
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1answer
30 views

Should I use hardlinks for my “sites-enabled” folder instead of softlinks?

Every article I find about web servers suggest creating a sites-available and sites-enabled directory within apache/nginx/etc. Then, using symbolic (soft) links, create a link from the available to ...
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1answer
52 views

Why does looking for hardlinks fail?

Here is how I find hard links located in /tmp: $ for file in /tmp/*; do if [ "$(stat -c %h -- "$file")" -gt 1 ]; then ls "$file" -l ; fi; done total 0 srwxrwxr-x 1 t t 0 Mar 20 23:01 debconf.socket ...
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1answer
47 views

Can a hard link break the file system structure?

I want a very simple example of how can a hard link break the file system structure. I saw somewhere that people say it's because of loops, however, I can make a loop with a soft link and so I still ...
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1answer
118 views

If I hardlink to a directory, will the contents be “preserved” as if I hard-linked to every file?

I've seen people on the internet talk about using hardlinks to force files to stay on disk as a backup, even if they're deleted in their original location. Would this work for a directory too? Why or ...
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2answers
110 views

FS permission scenario

How can I achieve this files & folders permissions scenario: Consider these folder: Folder A: 640 root apache /var/www/A/ Folder www: 640 root apache /var/www/ and this linux user: id user1: ...
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1answer
226 views

rsync hardlink attempt copies

I've tried setting up a script to hardlink my files to my box.com account (as it's a backup of my music library). As I want to run it automatically to sync my music across several devices, I wanted to ...
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1answer
1k views

Backing up hard links (rsync)?

My question begins with: Do I actually have hard links on my disk at all (except for "." and ".." of course)? I'm not sure how I would find that out? If no, the question is already answered. If yes, ...
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1answer
156 views

Hard Linking Other Users' Files

Suppose User A and User B have disk quotas of 1 GB. Also suppose User B creates a 900 MB file with permission 0666. This allows User A to access that file temporarily (for some project, etc.). Notice ...
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2answers
275 views

Convert a hardlink into a symbolic link

It is easy to convert a symlink into a hardlink with ln -f (example) It would also be easy to convert a hardlink (filenames link and original) back to a symbolic link to link->original in the case ...
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3answers
52 views

Sharing a project tree between environments

To save space and time I copied a large project tree on a network drive as hard links, i.e. cp -a -r --link proj proj_B (background: it's huge, needs to be rebuilt from two incompatible ...
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1answer
72 views

is there some kind of symbolic links that support moving or renaming the target file?

I liked this explanation of hard and soft/symbolic links: http://unix.stackexchange.com/a/22406/42226 Now the reason why I googled about soft and hard links is simply because I was organizing my ...
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1answer
187 views

How to get a list all the “aliases” of a file (including of type directory) efficiently?

How can one get the list of all the aliases of a file (including of type directory) efficiently, given that a file: may have multiple hard links, multipe soft links, multi-level soft links may be ...
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1answer
36 views

What operations raise link count

I had an interview, where the interviewer asked what operations raise the link count of a file, besides ln and its underlying syscall, I didn't know. He stated that opening a file will increase the ...
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133 views

Directory symlink to inode, not path (e.g. directory hardlinks)

I'm trying to better understand why directory hardlinks are not possible. Roughly, I think of directories and files as follows: directory --------- inode # exposed as . inode_of_parent # ...
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1answer
154 views

Linux command to copy as hard links, while deleting unwanted files?

I'm looking for a command that behaves both like cp -al in only creating hard links rather than copying file contents, and rsync -a --delete in removing files from the destination that are not ...
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19 views

What means a number of links > 1 for directories? [duplicate]

Both programs stat and ls -l tell about the number of (hard) links to file(s). Going under the assumption that one usually cannot create hardlinks for directories in Linux it confuses me to see ...
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2answers
229 views

mlbackup / rsync / hard links data size

I am new to mlbackup/rsync and the concept of hard links, so I am a little confused after creating a backup data set via mlbackup. So here's the scenario: I am backing up "folder A" to "folder B". ...
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2answers
204 views

Incremental backup with hard links for multiple folders

Can anyone refer me to a simple backup script or program, that will backup in the following way: Incremental Rotation of X backups Backup to a mounted drive (no need for remote connections) Multiple ...
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1answer
205 views

How hardlink and softlink works in background?

I am looking for an explanation of the following: what happens in Linux when we create soft link and hardlink how are they accessible why do symlinks always display 777 permissions
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2answers
38 views

How to specify the file type in a hard link [closed]

Does anyone know how to specify the file type of a hard link? Is this even possible? For example, I want to link to an HTML file (with content type text/html) in my website directory, so I used ln ...
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2answers
507 views

How to find out a file is hard link or symlink? [duplicate]

I have a file in ~/file.txt. I have created a hard link by : ln ~/file.txt ~/test/hardfile.txt and a symlink file : ln -s ~/file.txt ~/test/symfile.txt Now, How can I find out that which file ...
0
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1answer
158 views

Links in /usr/bin or /usr/local/bin: hard or symbolic?

For the links located in /usr/bin and in /usr/local/bin, are they better to be hard or symbolic? They seem to be all symbolic? Why?
0
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1answer
48 views

“Links” to dirs that have features of both hard and soft links?

It is not allowed to create a hard link for a dir. But the soft like will not work, if I later change the name of the dir. How would you solve the dilemma? Are there applications which can ...
0
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3answers
291 views

thoroughly find all links (hard and symlinks, and any combination thereof) leading to a file/dir

I read "most" of the proposed questions, but I believe they all miss the complexity of the right answer. I want, only using "basic" commands (for maximum portability) (i.e., something that would work ...
0
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1answer
28 views

. as a command line argument to a command running in background

I run grep some-string -r . &. While it is running in bkg, I cd to another directory. It seems that grep interprets the hard link . differently then. What happens before and after I change the ...
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2answers
11k views

Invalid cross-device link while Hardlinking in the same file system

I have /home/myuser/Desktop/rc/.netrc file that i want hardlink to /root, ie home directory of root user. When i do: ln /home/user/Destkop/rc/.netrc /root it gives the following error: ln: ...
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2answers
127 views

Change file hard link count

On my Linux machine, I have the following file: drwxr-xr-x 2 jsgdr Unix_31 4096 Dec 2 17:46 jsgdr How to change the permission 2 to 4 so that I will this: drwxr-xr-x 4 jsgdr ...
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2answers
169 views

ls hard link question

I run ls -la on the Volumes directory. It shows the MM dir to have 9 hard links and the Media dir to have 12. If I then cd to the MM directory and run ls -la, it shows only 7 items whereas if I cd to ...
0
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2answers
726 views

Hard links versus symbolic links: which one is faster / smaller? [duplicate]

Hard links Given a file original.txt, a hard link hardlink.txt will point to the same inode and continue to exist even when original.txt is deleted. Symbolic links Given a file original.txt, a ...
0
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1answer
50 views

Determine a file with the most Hard-Links

i got a homework today. Can u help me guys? "Determine on any PC pool that hosts regular file on the local file system root who has the most hard links! Avoid doing a search of the user home ...
0
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0answers
226 views

How to create a hardlink to a directory in Solaris?

I started to study the Solaris in my university. Teacher told me to do a hardlink to a directory. And he said that I can not to use mount command. For example: # mount -F lofs /dir1/dir2 ...
0
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1answer
119 views

How to increase the link count for a directory, link count went to 0?

I have made myself land in this situation, it is a chrooted workspace on my system where I virtualize the entire file system ( so its not actual /var/log ) Is there a way that I can either delete this ...
0
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0answers
110 views

Purpose of hard link and soft link [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What is the difference between symbolic and hard links? I've read quite a few articles regarding hard links and soft links, but I still dont understand the purpose of ...
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1answer
41 views

Create five copies of file with the same inode number

How can I create five copies of /etc/profile with the same inode number?