A hard link is file system entry that associates a name with another file on a file system.

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How are hard links counted in UNIX? [duplicate]

When we create a directory in UNIX it has 2 hard links: . and ... One to itself and another one to its parent directory. As I read the . increases counter of the directory, and the .. increases hard ...
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26 views

Editing a file with several hard links

Let's say I have two hard links pointing at the same picture. /photography/picture_1.jpg /best_pictures/picture_1.jpg What happens if I edit /photography/picture_1.jpg? Is the hard link broken and ...
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35 views

Does soft linking a directory hard link its subfiles?

Suppose I have the following configuration: Folder A file1 file2 I then create a soft link of Folder A as follows: ln -s A B so that we now have: Folder A file1 file2 Folder B ( symlink of ...
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37 views

link to an executable and remove some parameters

I currently am using Xamarin Studio, which has a bug in this version. It adds 2 parameters to an executable, which causes the output to flood with error messages, slowing down the build time from a ...
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35 views

What link should i use for home- & owncloud-data?

the plan is to built a debian-based sever with owncloud for syncing addressbooks, calendars, files etc. and also access large video-files in the LAN via webdav from some kodi-clients (maybe also use ...
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Do hard links count as normal files?

I was wondering if there was a way to register this, but since most modern search engines don't work well with phrases over about 5 words in length, I need some help on this one. I was wondering ...
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Hard-link creation - Permissions?

Which permissions affect hard-link creation? Does file ownership itself matters? Suppose user alice wants to create a hard-link to the file target.txt in a directory target-dir. Which permissions ...
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70 views

Why wont my hard links update each other?

I am using Mac OS X, but the command line. I want to make a link from my .profile file, to another file on my system so that updating one updates the other and vice versa. This article makes me ...
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55 views

Why can't a UID 0 process hardlink to SUID files in a user namespace?

Consider the following transcript of a user-namespaced shell running with root privileges (UID 0 within the namespace, unprivileged outside): # cat /proc/$$/status | grep CapEff CapEff: ...
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Two hard linked files share inode

I'm working on an assignment for my college course, and one of the questions asks for the command used to create a hard link from one file to another so that they point to the same inode. We were ...
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993 views

Surprised by behavior of cp with hardlinks

I understand the notion of hardlinks very well, and have read the man pages for basic tools like cp --- and even the recent POSIX specs --- a number of times. Still I was surprised to observe the ...
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44 views

Should I use hardlinks for my “sites-enabled” folder instead of softlinks?

Every article I find about web servers suggest creating a sites-available and sites-enabled directory within apache/nginx/etc. Then, using symbolic (soft) links, create a link from the available to ...
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Can files with different inum be hard linked?

I am a new Linux user learning from Arch Linux and recently Linux From Scratch (7.7). I set up a new installation of AL to be my LFS host; I manually (and also with the provided bash script) checked ...
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101 views

How does `lsof` keep track of open file descriptors' filenames?

I've noticed, if a file is renamed, lsof displays the new name. To test it out, created a python script: #!/bin/python import time f = open('foo.txt', 'w') while True: time.sleep(1) Saw that ...
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77 views

hardlinks seem to take several hundred bytes just for the link itself (not file data)

Additional Info Firstly, thank you for all the answers. So I re-ran the tests again to test the answer below that a directory/folder entry takes up 4KB and this was skewing my numbers, so this time ...
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64 views

Create five copies of file with the same inode number

How can I create five copies of /etc/profile with the same inode number?
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103 views

What is the difference in file size between Symbolic and Hard links?

I plan to keep all my movies in one giant folder, and then create other folders for the genres, while creating links for all the movies in the genre folder. This way I can organize movies into ...
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1answer
538 views

Hard link permissions behavior different between CentOS 6 and CentOS 7

I'm getting a permissions error in CentOS 7 when I try to create a hard link. With the same permissions set in CentOS 6 I do not get the error. The issue centers on group permissions. I'm not sure ...
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269 views

dpkg replacing files on a FAT filesystem

When you upgrade or reinstall a package with dpkg (and ultimately anything that uses it, like apt-get etc) it backs up the existing files by creating a hard link to the file before replacing it. That ...
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1answer
58 views

Generate SFV file, optimizing hard links

I'm currently running cfv -C -rr to generate a SFV file that contains the CRC32 checksums of all files in all subdirectories. The issue is that because there are so many hardlinks, this process is ...
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2k views

How to copy a directory recursively using hardlinks for each file

I want to create a "copy" of a directory tree where each file is a hardlink to the original file Example: I have a directory structure: dirA/ dirA/file1 dirA/x/ dirA/x/file2 dirA/y/ dirA/y/file3 ...
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1answer
376 views

Is it possible to create a non-empty file without write_close and rename event?

The reason why I am asking is because I'm using iwatch (not to confuse with a gadget device) to watch for filesystem events (in my case - file creation/renaming). What I cannot explain is this log: ...
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Several hard-links with different metadata in Linux using Ext4

Is it possible for Ext4 file systems (or maybe another one understood by Linux) to assign different metadata (like modification time, owner, access rights) to several hard-links that refer to the same ...
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59 views

Why does looking for hardlinks fail?

Here is how I find hard links located in /tmp: $ for file in /tmp/*; do if [ "$(stat -c %h -- "$file")" -gt 1 ]; then ls "$file" -l ; fi; done total 0 srwxrwxr-x 1 t t 0 Mar 20 23:01 debconf.socket ...
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509 views

Links in /usr/bin or /usr/local/bin: hard or symbolic?

For the links located in /usr/bin and in /usr/local/bin, are they better to be hard or symbolic? They seem to be all symbolic? Why?
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36 views

. as a command line argument to a command running in background

I run grep some-string -r . &. While it is running in bkg, I cd to another directory. It seems that grep interprets the hard link . differently then. What happens before and after I change the ...
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71 views

What operations raise link count

I had an interview, where the interviewer asked what operations raise the link count of a file, besides ln and its underlying syscall, I didn't know. He stated that opening a file will increase the ...
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49 views

How to specify the file type in a hard link [closed]

Does anyone know how to specify the file type of a hard link? Is this even possible? For example, I want to link to an HTML file (with content type text/html) in my website directory, so I used ln ...
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60 views

Can a hard link break the file system structure?

I want a very simple example of how can a hard link break the file system structure. I saw somewhere that people say it's because of loops, however, I can make a loop with a soft link and so I still ...
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413 views

rsync's --link-dest option does not link because of file time

Consider this test case: mkdir a echo 'blah' > a/test mkdir b echo 'blah' > b/test rsync -r --link-dest=/tmp/b /tmp/a/ /tmp/c As expected, rsync creates c/test a hardlink of b/test (note the ...
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219 views

Directory symlink to inode, not path (e.g. directory hardlinks)

I'm trying to better understand why directory hardlinks are not possible. Roughly, I think of directories and files as follows: directory --------- inode # exposed as . inode_of_parent # ...
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459 views

Hard Linking Other Users' Files

Suppose User A and User B have disk quotas of 1 GB. Also suppose User B creates a 900 MB file with permission 0666. This allows User A to access that file temporarily (for some project, etc.). Notice ...
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Convert a hardlink into a symbolic link

It is easy to convert a symlink into a hardlink with ln -f (example) It would also be easy to convert a hardlink (filenames link and original) back to a symbolic link to link->original in the case ...
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198 views

Change file hard link count

On my Linux machine, I have the following file: drwxr-xr-x 2 jsgdr Unix_31 4096 Dec 2 17:46 jsgdr How to change the permission 2 to 4 so that I will this: drwxr-xr-x 4 jsgdr ...
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90 views

Determine a file with the most Hard-Links

i got a homework today. Can u help me guys? "Determine on any PC pool that hosts regular file on the local file system root who has the most hard links! Avoid doing a search of the user home ...
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How to find out a file is hard link or symlink? [duplicate]

I have a file in ~/file.txt. I have created a hard link by : ln ~/file.txt ~/test/hardfile.txt and a symlink file : ln -s ~/file.txt ~/test/symfile.txt Now, How can I find out that which file ...
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Determining if a file is a hard link or symbolic link?

I'm creating a shell script that would take a a filename/path to a file and determines if the file is a symbolic link or a hard link. The only thing is, I don't know how to see if they are a hard ...
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226 views

Linux command to copy as hard links, while deleting unwanted files?

I'm looking for a command that behaves both like cp -al in only creating hard links rather than copying file contents, and rsync -a --delete in removing files from the destination that are not ...
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102 views

Use the same file link for both Linux and Windows

As in the title, is it even possible to do so? I mean, can I create a link on Linux and than make this link valid also on Windows? Use-case I have the folder /media/Data/DownloadedMusic on a NTFS ...
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What means a number of links > 1 for directories? [duplicate]

Both programs stat and ls -l tell about the number of (hard) links to file(s). Going under the assumption that one usually cannot create hardlinks for directories in Linux it confuses me to see ...
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303 views

How to create a hardlink to a directory in Solaris?

I started to study the Solaris in my university. Teacher told me to do a hardlink to a directory. And he said that I can not to use mount command. For example: # mount -F lofs /dir1/dir2 ...
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255 views

ls hard link question

I run ls -la on the Volumes directory. It shows the MM dir to have 9 hard links and the Media dir to have 12. If I then cd to the MM directory and run ls -la, it shows only 7 items whereas if I cd to ...
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405 views

Is there a better way than cp to copy millions of files while preserving hard links?

So in this story on the GNU coreutils ML, someone used cp to copy 430 million files and needed to preserve hard links, and just barely got it to finish after 10 days. The big problem was that, in ...
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2answers
538 views

Link value is 2 by default for folders

Can anyone help me to understand the logic behind the link value being "2" for the first time when we create any folders/ directory in linux. I searched a lot , but couldn't get satisfactory logic
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1k views

Is there a difference between hardlinking with cp -l or ln?

I am implementing a backup scheme using rsync and hardlinks. I know I can use link-dest with rsync to do the hardlinks, but I saw mention of using "cp -l" before "link-dest" was implemented in rsync. ...
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50 views

“Links” to dirs that have features of both hard and soft links?

It is not allowed to create a hard link for a dir. But the soft like will not work, if I later change the name of the dir. How would you solve the dilemma? Are there applications which can ...
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54 views

Sharing a project tree between environments

To save space and time I copied a large project tree on a network drive as hard links, i.e. cp -a -r --link proj proj_B (background: it's huge, needs to be rebuilt from two incompatible ...
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How to create file links on a vfat filesystem of a mounted disk under Linux?

I have an external drive containing different pieces of music. The drive is a vfat formatted drive to be able to work with arbitrary devices. On the device I have music stored from different artists ...
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528 views

Seemingly Inconsistent Behavior for “ln” & “ln -s”

As we all know, the ln command creates a link, with the default being a hard link and the -s option creating a symlink. The general syntax is ln [-s] OLD NEW, where OLD is the file you are linking to ...
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How to tell which file is original if hard link is created

For example, I have a file myold_file. Then I use ln to create a hard link as mylink: ln myold_file mylink Then, even by using ls -a, I cannot tell which is the old one. Is there anyway to tell?