A hard link is file system entry that associates a name with another file on a file system.

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25 views

Generate SFV file, optimizing hard links

I'm currently running cfv -C -rr to generate a SFV file that contains the CRC32 checksums of all files in all subdirectories. The issue is that because there are so many hardlinks, this process is ...
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142 views

How to copy a directory recursively using hardlinks for each file

I want to create a "copy" of a directory tree where each file is a hardlink to the original file Example: I have a directory structure: dirA/ dirA/file1 dirA/x/ dirA/x/file2 dirA/y/ dirA/y/file3 ...
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158 views

Is it possible to create a non-empty file without write_close and rename event?

The reason why I am asking is because I'm using iwatch (not to confuse with a gadget device) to watch for filesystem events (in my case - file creation/renaming). What I cannot explain is this log: ...
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40 views

Several hard-links with different metadata in Linux using Ext4

Is it possible for Ext4 file systems (or maybe another one understood by Linux) to assign different metadata (like modification time, owner, access rights) to several hard-links that refer to the same ...
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47 views

Why does looking for hardlinks fail?

Here is how I find hard links located in /tmp: $ for file in /tmp/*; do if [ "$(stat -c %h -- "$file")" -gt 1 ]; then ls "$file" -l ; fi; done total 0 srwxrwxr-x 1 t t 0 Mar 20 23:01 debconf.socket ...
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53 views

Links in /usr/bin or /usr/local/bin: hard or symbolic?

For the links located in /usr/bin and in /usr/local/bin, are they better to be hard or symbolic? They seem to be all symbolic? Why?
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26 views

. as a command line argument to a command running in background

I run grep some-string -r . &. While it is running in bkg, I cd to another directory. It seems that grep interprets the hard link . differently then. What happens before and after I change the ...
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1answer
26 views

What operations raise link count

I had an interview, where the interviewer asked what operations raise the link count of a file, besides ln and its underlying syscall, I didn't know. He stated that opening a file will increase the ...
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30 views

How to specify the file type in a hard link [closed]

Does anyone know how to specify the file type of a hard link? Is this even possible? For example, I want to link to an HTML file (with content type text/html) in my website directory, so I used ln ...
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41 views

Can a hard link break the file system structure?

I want a very simple example of how can a hard link break the file system structure. I saw somewhere that people say it's because of loops, however, I can make a loop with a soft link and so I still ...
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172 views

rsync's --link-dest option does not link because of file time

Consider this test case: mkdir a echo 'blah' > a/test mkdir b echo 'blah' > b/test rsync -r --link-dest=/tmp/b /tmp/a/ /tmp/c As expected, rsync creates c/test a hardlink of b/test (note the ...
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Directory symlink to inode, not path (e.g. directory hardlinks)

I'm trying to better understand why directory hardlinks are not possible. Roughly, I think of directories and files as follows: directory --------- inode # exposed as . inode_of_parent # ...
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94 views

Hard Linking Other Users' Files

Suppose User A and User B have disk quotas of 1 GB. Also suppose User B creates a 900 MB file with permission 0666. This allows User A to access that file temporarily (for some project, etc.). Notice ...
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130 views

Convert a hardlink into a symbolic link

It is easy to convert a symlink into a hardlink with ln -f (example) It would also be easy to convert a hardlink (filenames link and original) back to a symbolic link to link->original in the case ...
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80 views

Change file hard link count

On my Linux machine, I have the following file: drwxr-xr-x 2 jsgdr Unix_31 4096 Dec 2 17:46 jsgdr How to change the permission 2 to 4 so that I will this: drwxr-xr-x 4 jsgdr ...
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40 views

Determine a file with the most Hard-Links

i got a homework today. Can u help me guys? "Determine on any PC pool that hosts regular file on the local file system root who has the most hard links! Avoid doing a search of the user home ...
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260 views

How to find out a file is hard link or symlink? [duplicate]

I have a file in ~/file.txt. I have created a hard link by : ln ~/file.txt ~/test/hardfile.txt and a symlink file : ln -s ~/file.txt ~/test/symfile.txt Now, How can I find out that which file ...
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Determining if a file is a hard link or symbolic link?

I'm creating a shell script that would take a a filename/path to a file and determines if the file is a symbolic link or a hard link. The only thing is, I don't know how to see if they are a hard ...
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125 views

Linux command to copy as hard links, while deleting unwanted files?

I'm looking for a command that behaves both like cp -al in only creating hard links rather than copying file contents, and rsync -a --delete in removing files from the destination that are not ...
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55 views

Use the same file link for both Linux and Windows

As in the title, is it even possible to do so? I mean, can I create a link on Linux and than make this link valid also on Windows? Use-case I have the folder /media/Data/DownloadedMusic on a NTFS ...
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19 views

What means a number of links > 1 for directories? [duplicate]

Both programs stat and ls -l tell about the number of (hard) links to file(s). Going under the assumption that one usually cannot create hardlinks for directories in Linux it confuses me to see ...
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168 views

How to create a hardlink to a directory in Solaris?

I started to study the Solaris in my university. Teacher told me to do a hardlink to a directory. And he said that I can not to use mount command. For example: # mount -F lofs /dir1/dir2 ...
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128 views

ls hard link question

I run ls -la on the Volumes directory. It shows the MM dir to have 9 hard links and the Media dir to have 12. If I then cd to the MM directory and run ls -la, it shows only 7 items whereas if I cd to ...
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226 views

Is there a better way than cp to copy millions of files while preserving hard links?

So in this story on the GNU coreutils ML, someone used cp to copy 430 million files and needed to preserve hard links, and just barely got it to finish after 10 days. The big problem was that, in ...
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Link value is 2 by default for folders

Can anyone help me to understand the logic behind the link value being "2" for the first time when we create any folders/ directory in linux. I searched a lot , but couldn't get satisfactory logic
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404 views

Is there a difference between hardlinking with cp -l or ln?

I am implementing a backup scheme using rsync and hardlinks. I know I can use link-dest with rsync to do the hardlinks, but I saw mention of using "cp -l" before "link-dest" was implemented in rsync. ...
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45 views

“Links” to dirs that have features of both hard and soft links?

It is not allowed to create a hard link for a dir. But the soft like will not work, if I later change the name of the dir. How would you solve the dilemma? Are there applications which can ...
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49 views

Sharing a project tree between environments

To save space and time I copied a large project tree on a network drive as hard links, i.e. cp -a -r --link proj proj_B (background: it's huge, needs to be rebuilt from two incompatible ...
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588 views

How to create file links on a vfat filesystem of a mounted disk under Linux?

I have an external drive containing different pieces of music. The drive is a vfat formatted drive to be able to work with arbitrary devices. On the device I have music stored from different artists ...
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299 views

Seemingly Inconsistent Behavior for “ln” & “ln -s”

As we all know, the ln command creates a link, with the default being a hard link and the -s option creating a symlink. The general syntax is ln [-s] OLD NEW, where OLD is the file you are linking to ...
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How to tell which file is original if hard link is created

For example, I have a file myold_file. Then I use ln to create a hard link as mylink: ln myold_file mylink Then, even by using ls -a, I cannot tell which is the old one. Is there anyway to tell?
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“hard-linking” parts of a big file in which only a small part has changed

I use rsync to make backups: rsync -a --link-dest=PATHTO/$PREVIOUSBACKUP $SOURCE $CURRENTBACKUP This way I save space due to using hard links. The problem appears when I need to backup a huge file ...
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How to get folder size ignoring hard links?

I use rsnapshot for backups, which generates a series of folders containing files of the same name. Some of the files are hard linked, while others are separate. For instance, hourly.1/file1 and ...
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1answer
81 views

Where are information stored information about hard/soft links

Where does the *nix system store information about number of hard links to a specific inode? I can't find any information about that. Everywhere what a hard link is but rarely a bit more advanced ...
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430 views

Linux: How does hard-linking to a directory work?

I'm aware that Linux does not allow hard-linking to a directory. I read somewhere, that this is to prevent unintentional loops (or graphs, instead of the more desirable tree structure) in the ...
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664 views

Is a -rw-rw-rw- file really inaccessible inside a drwxrwx— directory?

Say I have a directory with these permissions: drwxrwx--- Inside this directory, a file with these permissions: -rw-rw-rw- Is the file readable/writable by everyone or not ? If not, how secure ...
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538 views

Hard links versus symbolic links: which one is faster / smaller? [duplicate]

Hard links Given a file original.txt, a hard link hardlink.txt will point to the same inode and continue to exist even when original.txt is deleted. Symbolic links Given a file original.txt, a ...
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setgid binary doesn't have permission, mount's right, I'm missing something, but what, please?

I'm sorry, I know this has to be something simple but I've checked the manpages, the mount, the permissions ... (edit: combined history into one sequence as requested. Starting to seem a not-simple ...
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257 views

thoroughly find all links (hard and symlinks, and any combination thereof) leading to a file/dir

I read "most" of the proposed questions, but I believe they all miss the complexity of the right answer. I want, only using "basic" commands (for maximum portability) (i.e., something that would work ...
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2k views

Can a file be retrieved by its inode?

Run command like the following: $ln a b $ls -i a b 523669 a 523669 b $rm -f a $ls -i b 523669 b I concluded from this test that command rm actually removes the filename (a in this test) only ...
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Why is there a mix of symlinks and hardlinks in /bin?

I understand the technical difference between symlinks and hardlinks, this is a question about their use in practice, particularly I'm curious to know why both are used in seemingly similar ...
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1answer
112 views

If I hardlink to a directory, will the contents be “preserved” as if I hard-linked to every file?

I've seen people on the internet talk about using hardlinks to force files to stay on disk as a backup, even if they're deleted in their original location. Would this work for a directory too? Why or ...
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1k views

Why do hard links seem to take the same space as the originals?

Thanks to some good Q&A around here and this page, I now understand links. I see hard links refer the same inode by a different name, and copies are different "nodes, with different names. Plus ...
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107 views

Files have the same inode but they don't link to each other

I have a bash script in two places and I can't remember how I created them. they have the same inode but none of them seem to link to another. is there a hard link but should not Links count for that ...
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111 views

How to increase the link count for a directory, link count went to 0?

I have made myself land in this situation, it is a chrooted workspace on my system where I virtualize the entire file system ( so its not actual /var/log ) Is there a way that I can either delete this ...
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FS permission scenario

How can I achieve this files & folders permissions scenario: Consider these folder: Folder A: 640 root apache /var/www/A/ Folder www: 640 root apache /var/www/ and this linux user: id user1: ...
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hardlink/softlink multiple file to one file

I have many files in a folder. I want to concatenate all these files to a single file. For example cat * > final_file; But this will increase disk space and also will consume time. Is there is a way ...
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200 views

mlbackup / rsync / hard links data size

I am new to mlbackup/rsync and the concept of hard links, so I am a little confused after creating a backup data set via mlbackup. So here's the scenario: I am backing up "folder A" to "folder B". ...
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65 views

is there some kind of symbolic links that support moving or renaming the target file?

I liked this explanation of hard and soft/symbolic links: http://unix.stackexchange.com/a/22406/42226 Now the reason why I googled about soft and hard links is simply because I was organizing my ...
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Invalid cross-device link while Hardlinking in the same file system

I have /home/myuser/Desktop/rc/.netrc file that i want hardlink to /root, ie home directory of root user. When i do: ln /home/user/Destkop/rc/.netrc /root it gives the following error: ln: ...