A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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How are the reserved GDT blocks used after online resizing in ext3 file system

I am working on Ext3 and after looking at FS layout - ext3 reserves ~1024 blocks as Reserved Group Descriptor Table (reserved GDT blocks are between Group Descriptor blocks and Bitmap blocks). These ...
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417 views

Why are block sizes limited by page size in Linux?

In many (all?) file systems that Linux uses, including ext2/3/4, the maximum block size is the page size of the architecture Linux is running on, ie. 4KiB on x86. Why is there this limit? Might this ...
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274 views

Is there a way to show all flags in /proc/mounts?

Some filesystem flags seem to be hidden in /proc/mounts, depending on whether they are defined as defaults. Is there a way to show all flags in /proc/mounts, also including the default ones? And if ...
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54 views

How can I have a filesystem mounted during user login?

I would like a file based filesystem (~/Archives/inventory.locker) mounted upon user login and unmounted upon logout (~/Documents/Inventory). pam_mount seems to provide the functionality I am after, ...
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86 views

tune2fs - how much space to reserve on large ext4 filesystem

I am aware that there are several questions concerning how much space to reserve on a filesystem using tune2fs -m, but some of the advice is contradictory, some seems to be relevant only to the ...
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67 views

Replacing a running binary on read-only file system

I have a simple updater bash script, which replaces files by removing the incident old files and copying new files from an archive to the running embedded target root file system. This way, the script ...
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280 views

OverlayFS - How to make changes to upper filesystem persistent without unmounting?

I am using an USB drive to start a linux system which needs changes from time to time and also writes some logs. Flash drives tend to fail early if there are many write operations. That brought me to ...
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93 views

Problems with file system

I created a partition with EXT4 file system and when I'm writing in this partition frequently the Kernel return the following error: Jan 01 01:17:54 infobuffer360 kernel: r7:c0561280 Jan 01 01:17:54 ...
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136 views

On which disk is a file located in a btrfs RAID-1 array/filesystem?

I have a btrfs array with 5 disks in RAID-1 mounted on /mnt/array: # btrfs filesystem show /mnt/array Label: 'nicefilesystem' uuid: censored Total devices 5 FS bytes used 4.95TiB ...
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157 views

How does fsnotify setting affect system performance?

Occasionally a software package I install complains that the default fsnotify setting is far too low for decent performance. Intellij IDEA or crashplan are two examples. They suggest using fsnotify ...
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26 views

Which subsystem caches file reads?

I am trying to understand how exactly file reads are served from Page Cache. This will be useful when I will be implementing my own filesystem in the kernel. Is file content cached by VFS or ...
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41 views

Does Linux still use rootfs?

In the kernel documentation file "ramfs, rootfs, and initramfs" it says Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. I have not ...
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37 views

What happens to directory entry when a file is renamed

What exactly happens to the directory entry when a file is renamed? Is it that the entry of the oldfile is flushed and the newfile is replaced at it's place or a completely new entry is made at the ...
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149 views

Why is my raid5 always resyncing ? (device names no persistent?)

I have a Intel RST software raid on ubuntu 14.04 with mdadm: (4 x 6TB drives in Raid 5, created with device names /dev sudo mdadm -C /dev/md/imsm /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdh /dev/sdi -n 4 -e imsm sudo ...
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294 views

Disk I/O latency using /proc/vmstat file

How do I calculate disk read and write latency in Linux? Is it possible to do the calculation using /proc file system? I am using iostat and vmstat command. But I do not understand how the ...
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193 views

EXT4 Journaling - Problem

Basically my root (/) ext4 partition keeps being mounted as read-only when I apply internal journaling feature. I understand that this should be default, but today I had been trying to apply external ...
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194 views

Mount LVM volume as external usb drive? CentOS 6

I'm trying to mount my old 2x500GB drives to the new server which has the same drive volume. Both have LVM structure but it's not working. root@server [/mnt/usb]# ls /dev/sd* /dev/sda /dev/sda2 ...
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32 views

Mapping a physical sector to a filename

I just finished using ddrescue to recover the contents of a failing hard drive. It was able to recover everything but two sectors. How do I figure out which files (if any) occupied those sectors? ...
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101 views

What can I do with btrfs “profiles”?

Reading through the btrfs (sub) command documentation, it can "balance only block groups with the given replication profiles", and "convert selected blocks to a given profile", and apparently it ...
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161 views

How to check if GRUB is password protected or not?

Is there any command to check whether GRUB boot loader is password protected or not? What is the file path? where it stores this information specially on Debian OS.
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187 views

How do I speed up recovering “stuck” cifs mount?

I have a cifs mounted like this: mount.cifs -o uid=myuser,user=...,dom=... //IP/Share /some/mountpoint/ When I try to access it after period of inactivity (or when the network is inaccessible), it ...
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345 views

Size Range of ext4 Filesystem Journal

The minimum and maximum sizes respectively for the ext3 filesystem journal are 1,024 blocks and 102,400 blocks. Similarly — what are the minimum and maximum sizes for the journal on an ext4 ...
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263 views

Directory symlink to inode, not path (e.g. directory hardlinks)

I'm trying to better understand why directory hardlinks are not possible. Roughly, I think of directories and files as follows: directory --------- inode # exposed as . inode_of_parent # ...
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108 views

BTRFS - Raid incomplete after balancing

I have two 3TB drive that are formated as btrfs and mounted on /media/andy/btrfs as one drive. I run btrfs balance start -dconvert=raid1 -mconvert=raid1 /media/andy/btrfs/ which takes forever. It ...
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27 views

Defining Languages Available at boot - LiveCD

I am trying to create a refined version of the buggy uck for customizing Ubuntu LiveCD ISO, here it is if you're interested in helping. NOTE: The process is straight-forward, except when customizing ...
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510 views

Cannot mount second 1TB harddrive in Linux, works fine in Windows 8.1

So I have this problem with my second hard-drive that I have been trying to fix for quite awhile now with no luck. I have searched around to try to find solutions to my problem but nothing seemed to ...
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237 views

how to migrate a squashfs system to another filesystem that's read/write

Well, basically what i want to do is copy all of my router's files (even the dev file (because i'm running busybox)) to my usb flash drive and let my router by default boot from the usb device. it ...
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245 views

Is there a way to access Google Drive spreadsheet?

I'm using Linux Mint 16 Cinnamon. I tried google-drive-ocamlfuse and grive, but both of them can't access spreadsheet. google-drive-ocamlfuse shows this error: Device or resource busy W hen it ...
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92 views

How to restrict directory name creation to pattern?

I have FreeNas CIFS share. Mount command result: /dev/ufs/VSPHERE on /mnt/VSPHERE (ufs, NFS exported, local, soft-updates, nfsv4acls) I want to restrict users from creating directories that do not ...
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2k views

find ount what [flush-8:0] is writing

Using iotop, I found out that [flush-8:0] is doing a lot of hard disk activity, which explains the annoying slowdowns. However, I can't figure out what's the actual cause behind this flushing. No ...
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135 views

Why does my Pandaboard boot partition need to be vfat, and the rootfs need to be ext3 or ext4?

While booting Android on a Pandaboard, I am partitioning the SD card into two partitions, boot and root. They contain different filesystems. Why does the boot partition need to be vfat, while the ...
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233 views

Can a FAT32 and NTFS file system exist without UUID?

I have an USB disk drive partioned with 2 FAT32 partitions, which is not getting detected in the embedded device, but gets detected in a Fedora system. Basically in the udev rules, I am not able to ...
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94 views

What are the differences between the current Linux kernel and the Unix SVR4 kernel in terms of device drivers+i/o and virtual files systems?

Yes I realize that Linux supports many more file systems and recognizes more devices than Unix SVR4. I'm interested in what the differences are in the abstraction on top of an actual file system, or ...
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297 views

Connected external HDD slows down system

I need to connect large external hard disks (with many many files) to a system running Ubuntu. I have no idea how the Linux kernel is treating the inodes for the external drives, but attaching huge ...
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40 views

FUSE Overlay filesystem for “too long filenames”

Is there FUSE overlay filesystem, that: * resolve on it's own "too long filenames" for underlying filesystem * otherwise (for filenames fitting into limits of underlying filesystem) just proxy 1:1 ? ...
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How do I open access (+x) to a directory behind symlinks in one move?

For example, to open access to /sys/bus/usb/devices/1-1/, the following need to be done: chmod a+x /sys/bus/ chmod a+x /sys/bus/usb/ chmod a+x /sys/bus/usb/devices/ # files in "devices" are ...
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26 views

Union mount on Linux

A union mount presents a combined view of multiple directories (branches) in a single hierarchy. Ok, but how do I use one in practice, and which one? Many union mount technologies are available on a ...
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24 views

Is there a way to mount two folders into one mounting point, so that folders are mirrored?

I want some tool like $ mirroring_mount ~/first_location ~/second_location ~/mount_point So, when I edit file in ~/mount_point, it is edited in both locations, and if ~/first_location and ...
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15 views

Partition on raid array incorrectly states it is full

Sorry if this is the wrong place to post this question. I have a small home media (samba) server, which has a software (mdadm) raid10 array, with 4 disks, each being 3TB. It has only one xfs ...
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32 views

Is there a way to interleave two filesystems of the same structure?

I have a large networked file system whose backup routine sees some file systems as higher priority than others and are given more redundancy with backups. At present those file systems are visible as ...
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11 views

Different partition after upgrade of OPENWRT

I have just updated the firmware of my olinuxino rt5350f to the last release of chaos calmer 15.05.1 (website, image). After having finished the installation via tftp I noticed that the free space is ...
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140 views

Wrong inode: corrupted f2fs, fsck.f2fs cannot repair

A f2fs partition on my Android phone has recently become corrupted. It will still mount fine; however, I completely lost access to one directory (/data/media/0), which now shows as empty. Yet the disk ...
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16 views

Bash holding onto lock of usb drive, bug?

I notice that bash seems to want to hold locks on my Truecrypt USB drive that has been accessed, even when no access process is actually occurring. When I try to mount the drive I get various "device ...
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14 views

Files (e.g. music) on secondary drive can't be found by programs

I'm dual booting elementary OS with Windows 10. Each has its main file system on a 128gb SSD, with shared data on a 1TB HDD. I'm very new to Linux so sorry if this is a dumb question. I can access ...
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11 views

Example of situation where ACL unaware tools would grant unintended permssions

This document about File ACLs makes mention that the masking mechanism was put in place to solve the problem of ... POSIX.1 applications that are unaware of ACLs will not suddenly and ...
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25 views

VFAT FS Sync/Flush Behaviour

In order to increase the life of my VFAT flash drives, I have them set to mount as async. One of these drives sometimes deals with large data changes, and as a result, the writes that occur on umount ...
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29 views

Btrfs - Using Flash Drive as Backup/Snapshot Location

I am working on a project where I have a small MiniITX PC running Debian Jessie (8.3) When I installed the OS initially: I chose the filesystem as btrfs. I am not using LVM or any extra partitions ...
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104 views

Cannot remove file: Read-only file system

I am trying to delete a file on an Ubuntu 12.04 system for which I have root access. However, I am getting this error: root@CRST-Web:/home/real_property/html# rm -r -f results.php rm: cannot remove ...
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16 views

How much control do concrete file systems have over the VFS inode cache and the buffer cache?

I want to make sure I'm understanding how VFS inodes and file system inodes working together. A file system's inodes are stored on the block device and that is where they live. When an operation is ...
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16 views

Snapper - how to undo changes, preserving timestamps?

I've damaged modification dates of files on my drive and I wanted to revert them using snapper snapshots but it doesn't seem to work, snapper only reverts content of files not modification dates. ...