A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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is VFS a module?

While studying VFS, this question popped into my head. Is it okay to think of VFS as a module? The reason why I thought like that is because VFS has the characteristic of simplifying actual file ...
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3answers
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Having a host with ZFS system, how to make it available to other hosts on local network?

Having a Linux (RHEL 6) host with ZFS system, how to make it available to other hosts on local network (over LAN or InfiniBand if possible)? what shall be done to ZFS pool to make it sharable? how ...
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Which filesystem information are considered to be userspace relevant? [on hold]

These filesystems normaly allow to store/retrieve information via files (hierarcical) by way of the kernel - having a module/driver for the filesystem - making the data stored in the filesystem ...
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1answer
29 views

Using File Date/Time as Metadata: Reliable?

Background: I have groups of files in their own directory which I merge into one file in order of their filename. I call them t1.txt, t2.txt, t3.txt... I merge them in order of the integer. ...
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3answers
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How to influence the inode number, e.g. at fs restore?

Files in *nix filesystems almost ever have an associated inode number. In most cases users seem not to deal very much with those inode numbers, as they use filenames (i.e. a hierarchical ...
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How to get mount point of filesystem containing given file

I am looking for a quick way to find the mount point of the file system containing a given FILE. Is there anything simpler or more direct than my solution below? df -h FILE |tail -1 | awk -F% ...
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Granular control of rwx permissions on NTFS partition

I am running a Ubuntu-Windows dual boot setup, and I have a third NTFS partition for my shared data (documents, music, downloads, etc). I currently mount the partition using /etc/fstab like so: ...
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2answers
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Debian won't boot: udevd fails to load device sda and sdb

I can't boot my Debian system, I got this error during boot up: Driver 'pcspkr' is already registered, aborting. I have solved this by adding blacklist snd-pscp to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf ...
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1answer
33 views

Live Linux and FAT32

I'm looking for a Linux distribution that will run (uncompressed) on a FAT16/32/NTFS partition, preferably on an external USB drive. I've come across Slax and Porteus as well as a few others but they ...
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3answers
107 views

Bulk remove a large directory on a ZFS without traversing it recursively

I want to remove a directory that has large amounts of data on it. This is my backup array, which is a ZFS filesystem, linear span, single pool. The data is in this pool called san, mounted on /san ...
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Disk i/o latency using /proc/vmstat file

How do i calculate Disk read and write latency in Linux? Is it possible to do the calculation using /proc file system? I am used iostat and vmstat command. But i do not understand how the ...
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1answer
30 views

Should I use hardlinks for my “sites-enabled” folder instead of softlinks?

Every article I find about web servers suggest creating a sites-available and sites-enabled directory within apache/nginx/etc. Then, using symbolic (soft) links, create a link from the available to ...
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1answer
28 views

How to take snapshot of an ext4 filesystem

Is there any way we can take a snapshot of an ext4 filesystem so that we can revert back to it later?
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4answers
3k views

How to recover a file just deleted [duplicate]

I just deleted a file in Nautilus with Shift+Delete, which warned me that "If you delete an item, it will be permanently lost." I wonder if there is no way to recover the file? My OS is Ubuntu 10.10. ...
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1answer
4k views

Mounting a multi-partition (GPT/HFS+) USB 2.0 harddrive on Debian

I have a 3TB USB 2.0 hard-drive which has two HFS+ (Mac) partitions using GUID partition table for the partition records. It was partitioned with Mac OS Disk Utility. How can I mount these partitions ...
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1answer
13 views

How to use tune2fs?

I want to adjust the time interval between ext2, ext3 and ext4 filesystem checks to 180 days? I know that I have to use tune2fs -i 180 but I am not sure about the arguments
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1answer
39 views

Problem mounting disk

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l Disk /dev/xvdb: 2147.5 GB, 2147483648000 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 261083 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size ...
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1answer
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Reason for change in ctime when the file content is modified

I understand that ctime changes when the file metadata or the file content is changed and mtime on file content modification. I would like to know the reason for updating ctime when the content of ...
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3 TB ext4 partition performance issue

I have deployed Centos 6.6 VM based on vSphere ESXi 5.5, it consists of 2 VMDK (virtual disks): 1st vmdk is for System / with 25 GB second vmdk /var is a 3TB / ext4 underlying storage is RAID 5 ...
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2answers
625 views

/var House Keeping [closed]

Does anyone have any general advice or links for doing some house keeping on the /var filesystem on Unix and Linux servers? I have searched the issue quite a bit but can find no real concrete ...
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2answers
596 views

Why is df missing 500MB of available space?

I've just had a message today from Ubuntu 11.04 that I have only 100 MB left, so I cleaned up some files, and I got 200 MB. Then, after a couple of hours, suddenly I have only 26 MB?! I tried df, du ...
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1answer
7 views

Only move folders not existing in target directory

I am looking for a way to move folders that are not already present in the target directory on my linux server. Example: Target directory folder1 folder2 folder3 folder4 Source directory folder1 ...
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6answers
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How to safely turn off swap permanently? (on Debian Jessie)

I fresh installed Debian Jessie with default partitioning on an SSD drive. My current disk partitions look like this: As I have 16GB RAM, I think I don't need swap. On Windows, I had it turned off ...
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1answer
29 views

remounting FS with read write rights

Looking for the read only file system: grep "\sro[\s,]" /proc/mounts /dev/disk/by-uuid/2c04d594-b11d-4b02-b1b3-3d9f0b66b73c / ext3 ro,relatime,errors=remount-ro,barrier=1,data=ordered 0 0 So the / ...
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Why is my raid5 always resyncing ? (device names no persistent?)

I have a Intel RST software raid on ubuntu 14.04 with mdadm: (4 x 6TB drives in Raid 5, created with device names /dev sudo mdadm -C /dev/md/imsm /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdh /dev/sdi -n 4 -e imsm sudo ...
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1answer
24 views

Content Explanation Of: /proc/fs/ext4/device_name/mb_groups

I've been wondering, what are the explanation of the columns in the /proc/fs/ext4/device_name/mb_groups file. The columns are: #group: free frags first [ 2^0 2^1 2^2 2^3 2^4 2^5 2^6 2^7 2^8 2^9 2^10 ...
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df and du differences too large [duplicate]

-bash-3.2$ df -h | grep /mnt/opt /mnt/opt 197G **163G** 32G 84% /mnt/opt -bash-3.2$ du -sh /mnt/opt **74G** /mnt/opt More then 1/2 the differences between df and du. ...
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1answer
2k views

/etc/fstab is mounting rw filesystem as read-only

A partition of my internal hard drive (not the root partition) I want to mount automatically on boot. I've been using /etc/fstab to mount my external backup drive automatically read-only, so this is ...
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4answers
7k views

Fix EXT4-fs bad geometry (block count exceeds size of device)

I have a micro SD card which has a FAT32 partition and an EXT4 partition. The EXT4 partition will no longer mount. dmesg shows the following error: EXT4-fs (sdb2): bad geometry: block count ...
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0answers
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OverlayFS - How to make changes to upper filesystem persistent without unmounting?

I am using an USB drive to start a linux system which needs changes from time to time and also writes some logs. Flash drives tend to fail early if there are many write operations. That brought me to ...
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why does my Ubuntu Virtual Machine slow down after a number of searches, and builds?

I recently learned that my Ubuntu Linux file system may cache the result of some commands such as searches, sorts, and perhaps build commands such as make. I run Ubuntu in a VM, and although I have ...
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651 views

RPM command stuck/FREEZE when installing RPM file

I want to install the following rpm from some reason RPM is stuck or freeze and not install the RPM package also I cant stop it by control C , please advice what could be the problem ? root]# rpm ...
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1answer
59 views

How to turn default Scientific Linux on top of some file system into linux on top of zfs?

So I have a cluster with an array of hard drives (say 6), currently they are not in any RAID, on top of one of them I currently have my Scientific Linux installed and running. How to migrate it onto ...
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1answer
26 views

System call 'open' mode not working

I am writing a simple code about opening a file with O_CREAT | O_WDONLY | O_EXCL flags. The code looks like this: int fd = open(fileName, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0777); It works well, except ...
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How to clean up unnecessary files

Please suggest me any particular unnecessary file that I can clean to back everything to normal condition(temporarily). (i.e. any log or archieve or anything ). My var/log has only 40MB and Home ...
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1answer
41 views

What do “extents” feature do in ext4 filesystem in linux?

I was reading about the ext4 filesystem that it supports compression, encryption and a feature called extents which is used to save disk space. What are extents and how are they are effective for ...
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1answer
23 views

Does udev (/udev) consume storage?

Let's say I install a single partition (root) of linux that's 20GB. When I run 'df' it shows me the root drive that's 20GB, udev, and several tmpfs info. I believe tmpfs is just temporary and from ...
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1answer
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EXT filesystem family: Why does the first superblock start at offset 1024?

I was brushing up and diving deeper into filesystem anatomy and in numerous resources it is said to be a requirement that the very first superblock start at an offset of 1024 bytes. I started looking ...
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1answer
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How to install applications temporary into RAM on LiveCD?

So I have a Scientific Linux LiveDVD. And I have it installed on a PC that has no hard drives configured and avaliable at all. I want to install some applications that would allow me to configure ...
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1answer
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How do I pass options to forcefsck?

I am trying to run a one time disk check at bootup by using /forcefsck but I would like to pass some of the FSCK options such as y, c, f, and v. I have tried inserting these in the file but I seems to ...
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0answers
15 views

Debian 8.1 Automatic Mounting Issues

I'm having some issues mounting a partition in Debian 8.1. I have my system set up to mount /home/caleb/Downloads on a separate partition (on a different drive than /). The drive is /dev/sdc3 and ...
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1answer
16 views

How to extend partition to all unallocated space in a VPS?

Hello and sorry for the dumb question but I'm a bit new to Linux and I'm always very scared to mess with partitions. Anyway, here it goes my story: I rent a VPS that uses a SSD of 10GB (Debian 7) and ...
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1answer
27 views

Making aufs union mounts read-write

So I've got two systems, lucyvanpelt and schroeder. lucyvanpelt's /home is exported read-write to schroeder via NFS. Its location on schroeder is /mnt/home/lucyvanpelt I want to union-mount it with ...
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2answers
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How to force drop all partitions and erase disk from terminal?

My question is in fact related to OS X, however I'm using Linux tools to resolve my problem. I'm trying to delete all the partitions on my SSD drive and create new GUID (HFS+) partition table. Native ...
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1answer
407 views

Aufs Whiteout removal

I'm using AUFS for merging 100+ branches for a project. At runtime, I frequently add or remove few branches. Now, If I have a branch named "firefox-21.0" and If I update/modify one of it's file then ...
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4answers
9k views

Mount a filesystem read-only, and redirect writes to RAM?

Is it possible to mount a loopback file as read-only, and redirect all writes to RAM?
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4answers
5k views

The merits of a partitionless filesystem

I ran into something a couple of weeks ago that I'd never seen before: A filesystem (ext3 I believe) installed to a storage device without a partition. In essence /dev/sdb was the entire filesystem. I ...
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1answer
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How to diagnose potential JFFS2 flash problems?

I have a large fleet of embedded ARM systems using the JFFS2 filesystem. Are there any particular commands or log file entries I can query to gauge whether they are having any corruption or other ...
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2answers
1k views

File system CRC check

I know that before running the kernel, u-boot (the boot loader) will check the kernel image CRC. Only if it is correct it will go further, else it will give a "Bad CRC" error. I want to do same thing ...
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How to install a system on top of ZFS?

I have a clear system with 5 hard drives, bios. No OS installed, no formatting applied to hard drives. I want to install a Scientific linux (6.6 or higher) OS on top of ZFS on it. What are the ...