A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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What exactly is the metadata in a journaling filesystem like ext3 or ext4?

I was going through this link on filesystem journaling, but nowhere it is mentioned what exactly is a metadata. In some other links, it vaguely says it is data about files and directories. Could ...
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Badblocks, test read/write non-destructively on a mounted disk [on hold]

I started a test read/write non-destructively with badblocks, everything was going well until, by accident, a person mounted the file system and began to access Some video files in it for a few ...
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3answers
5k views

Is an ISO image file a filesystem in its own right?

I am trying to understand what the relationship a xxx.iso file has to the other aspects of a block device, e.g. partitions and a file system. It's common for people to describe accessing or making a ....
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4answers
280 views

Delete file with filename that contain unallowed characters

In /tmp dir I have file with this filename: .<?php passthru($_GET['cmd']);echo 'm3rg3';?> I can't remove this file by normal means and have tried with quoting this filename with no results. ...
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Not able to understand the output of FFSB (Filesystem benchmark) ON RAID-6

I'm trying to run FFSB benchmark (https://sourceforge.net/projects/ffsb/) a RAID-6 server and the output is really confusing to evaluate. Distribution - Red Hat Linux kernel version - 2.6.32-504.30....
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IO Error when trying to create a Btrfs snapshot

In Fedora 23, my / partition is formatted as Btrfs: /dev/nvme0n1p4 / btrfs rw,seclabel,relatime,ssd,space_cache,subvolid=257,subvol=/root 0 0 Full output: $ sudo cat /proc/mounts sysfs /sys sysfs ...
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29 views

Patching the kernel to allow booting without initrd

The first answer of 'Why does Linux use an Initial Ram Disk at boot?' states that the initrd/initial ram filesystem is used to provide drivers to mount the real root filesystem. It also says that it ...
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1answer
11 views

Configure NFS server to accept connections from unpriviledged ports

I'm working on custom-made NFS client and would like for the purpose of testing to allow connecting to my server from the ports that don't require elevated privileges. I'm sure there was a way of ...
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Looking for a way to test how often filesystem data is flushed

I have an embedded system, which by it's nature, has power cut off with little warning to the system. The system writes log files to an SD card, and it is desired to have the filesystem flush to ...
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1answer
16k views

Granting all users access to mounted CIFS shares

I'm trying to set up a debian server that will run several network-based services. These services need access to an external network drive to store their data. For security reasons, I have set up each ...
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2answers
44 views

How to display the contents that give rise to the sizes that `ls -l` reports for directories?

I understand that the sizes that ls -l reports for directories reflects the space taken up by the "metadata" for those directories. Also, I imagine that this metadata exists in binary/non-human-...
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52 views

What are btrfs generation_errs?

I have a btrfs file system that I've scrubbed a few times and found some errors. If I check the device status I see that I have generation_errs: $ sudo btrfs device stats /dev/nvme0n1p5 [/dev/...
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2answers
1k views

Debian won't boot: udevd fails to load device sda and sdb

I can't boot my Debian system, I got this error during boot up: Driver 'pcspkr' is already registered, aborting. I have solved this by adding blacklist snd-pscp to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf (...
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1answer
159 views

Where is information about hard/soft links stored?

Where does the *nix system store information about number of hard links to a specific inode? I can't find any information about that. Everywhere what a hard link is but rarely a bit more advanced ...
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2answers
439 views

Ubuntu broken after power failure. How to fix?

I have Ubuntu 11.10. server which suffered from power failure today. Ever since the power went back on the unit works only partially. Some services work OK, some does not start, e.g. apache2ctl ...
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1answer
952 views

How can I get write access to my usb drives?

I have trouble writing to external drives. They are monuted automatically in Nautilus, but I can not copy anything there ('Paste' and 'create Folder' are just greyed out). Does Anyone have ideas what ...
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1answer
36 views

Split xls file into small xls files [closed]

I want to split the sample.xlsx (containing 3 sheets) file into the 3 different sheet1.xlsx sheet2.xlsx sheet3.xlsx files , I have John McNamara Perl package repositories VERSION = 2.37. I am adding ...
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1answer
1k views

NTFS drive not mounting in Debian

This drive has been working fine for a while, but I recall having had some slight trouble getting it mounted in the past. Anyway, it was disconnected from the machine for some time and when I ...
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3answers
58 views

Where to turn first when out of free space on Cent OS Web Server?

I am a very new Systems Administrator. I have a Windows background and am now a Jr. Systems Admin working with Cent OS 5. Our web server runs Cent OS 5 and uses PHP/MySQL for our web applications. ...
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5answers
691 views

Why are hard links only valid within the same filesystem?

I am reading this intro to the command line by Mark Bates. In the first chapter, he mentions that hard links cannot span file systems. An important thing to note about hard links is that they ...
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1answer
16 views

Get back free space lost with resize2fs

I resized an EXT4 partition with resize2fs, but it was after the action completed that I found out it only shrinked the filesystem, not the partition. How can I grow the filesystem to be the size of ...
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2answers
90 views

Something like a symbolically linked file, but with change details attached?

Is there a file type or method for using files in which certain files look and behave like symbolically linked files, but contain extra meta information for changing the data when they are read? ...
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3answers
57 views

What is an orphaned inode? [closed]

I understand what an inode is but what is the exact definition of an orphaned inode? I don't really get what that means. UPDATE There was a time that a server I was managing ran out of inodes but ...
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39 views

CentOS Virtualbox vdi to raw problem

So I had CentOS7 running on a virtual machine then I tried to move it to a physical hard drive using the commandline "D:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox>vboxmanage clonehd --format RAW D:\Virtualbox \...
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1answer
26 views

ACL and plain old permissions

I have read a bunch of articles, but still cannot get an idea of ACL, so I have following questions. What are benefits of using ACL over old permissions (0777 for example) and changing file owner,...
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1answer
26 views

What does mounting a filesystem with user_xattr do?

SELinux documentation for Debian says that user_xattr is not the same as extended attributes. So what is it?
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2k views

When is exFAT coming to Linux? [closed]

It seems that exFAT is to be the next standard filesystem for removable media. The problem is, it is designed by Microsoft and made proprietary. However, it is the standard FS for the upcoming SDXC ...
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1answer
103 views

set umask for sshfs-mounted filesystem

I have a remote sshfs filesystem mounted on /mnt/data. Following is the relevant line in /etc/fstab: www-data@192.168.1.10:/var/www/ /mnt/data fuse.sshfs rw,noauto,nodev,nosuid,noexec,_netdev,...
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Find the process creating junk in my home folder [duplicate]

Some process keeps creating a folder called \~ in my home folder every time my computer boots up (and some other times, too) and it's really getting on my nerves. I guess this misconfigured app knows ...
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2answers
6k views

Why can't I remove the '.' directory?

I tried removing the '.' directory. I thought I could just delete my working directory without having to go into a parent directory. The point of my question is to look for some insight into how the ...
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0answers
11 views

Image file and filesystem errors

Since several weeks I'm working on an image file of a file-system. It is composed of three partition (boot, rootfs, home). I did a lot of work inside with chroot and external tools. Then I used ...
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6answers
9k views

What directories do I need to back up?

What are the directories one should back up, in order to have a backup of all user-generated files? From a vanilla debian install, I can do enough apt to get the packages that I want. So if I don't ...
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How to grow filesystem to use unallocated space in partition?

I duplicated a hard disk to a new larger one using the method suggested in Full DD copy from hdd to hdd. After doing that df -h reports the original and smaller partition sizes from the original disk ...
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2answers
1k views

Check the filesystem format with BusyBox (stat -f and df -T do not work)

I am using latest BusyBox v1.22.1 in my target. I want to check the filesystem type using stat -f or df -T but busybox doesn't support such commands. busybox help shows stat command as supported but ...
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4answers
3k views

Why is writing SLOW on raw device, and FAST on filesystem (USB key)?

I have a USB key (PQI U822V-Speedy 32G) that I am trying to benchmark quick'n'dirty on Linux. I'm testing write bandwith. dd on raw partition I created a partition starting at sector 2048, then did ...
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1answer
18 views

how to get /log fS usage in two remote servers

how to trigger mail with below format by getting df -h /log fS usage server1 | server 2 75% | 50% Below are step how i check FS usage manually login to putty ssh server1 give the ...
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1answer
93 views

How to Solve this Read-only file system error?

I do find /media/masi/FAT32/ -type f -name '._*' -delete but I get find: cannot delete '/media/masi/FAT32/._booklet.pdf': Read-only file system I do not know how to work with such situations ...
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1answer
22 views

Continue monitor web server and download newly added files

What are the best way to continuously monitor a web server (HTTP) and download newly added file with min. delay (ideally < 1min. delay)?
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56k views

How does the sticky bit work?

SUID The sticky bit applied to executable programs flagging the system to keep an image of the program in memory after the program finished running. But I don't know that what it's stored in memory....
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65 views

How to delete unknown file that doesn't have proper permissions

My co-worker sent me a theme in a tar.gz file and I tried unzipping it using the archive manager GUI as I usually do for any kind of zipped file. However, it produced a corrupt file/directory that I ...
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1answer
9k views

“inode_size (128) * inodes_count (0) too big for a filesystem with 0 blocks” while creating a file system

My partition table looks like this: Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 2048 32505855 16251904 83 Linux /dev/sda2 32505856 33554431 ...
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1answer
18 views

Installing large package throwing “no space” error

Im trying to install unity3D on my persitsent Ubuntu linuy, the stick is 10+ gb and the persistent part about 4GB. But whenever i run dpkg -i unity-editor-5.3.5f1+20160525_amd64.deb it takes a while ...
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Does copying files to live usb damage the installation?

I've made myself a live Ubuntu stick (with persistence if that matters) but I can't boot into it from the PC I'm currently using (boot menu is restricted) Can I save files onto the USB without ...
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1answer
25 views

Identifiy file system for the device /dev/sdc1

I started an old Virtual Machine in the UAT environment. The output for uname -a is : Linux pawana 2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Sun Nov 10 22:19:54 EST 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux There 3 ...
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3answers
6k views

What are the advantages of Btrfs for end users?

Btrfs has begun to gain some momentum in replacing ext4 as the default filesystem of choice for a few distributions such as Fedora Core 16. It is experimentally available in a number of other ...
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Are directory paths stored in UNIX filesystem? [duplicate]

How is the path of a directory retrieved in UNIX filesystems? Since directories are pointing to subdirectories it seems like the path need to be set together from the parent and parent parents etc. ...