A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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mkfs.ext4: Discarding device blocks: failed - Input/output error [on hold]

I am trying to format my new SD card, using following command; mkfs.ext4 -O ^has_journal /dev/mmcblk0p2 and I get following error: Discarding device blocks: failed - Input/output error I don't ...
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how to remove root clone folder

I am not entirely sure what i have done to be honest, but i believe i have mounted a folder to a / directory. So no when i am in / folder i have : bin etc lib media proc ...
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Filesytem errors during boot

I am using OMAPL138 and kernel version 2.6.37 and I would like to improve the boot time of my system. I made some progress on this, but I still have some errors which may be causing delay in the boot ...
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21 views

How do file permissions work with partition filesystem?

If I store a file in ext2, ext3, or ext4 formatted partition, it's permission is saved. I mean, I can have different permissions for different files in extX partition. However, If I store a file in ...
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1answer
73 views

rm -rf: cannot remove `/opt/jetty': Directory not empty

I have a script using the following command to remove a folder: ssh -q root@hostname sh -c 'rm -rf /opt/jetty/' Most of the times it works fine, but occasionally I get this message: rm: cannot ...
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23 views

Precaching the list of files of the filesystem

I was wondering where and in what form a list of files and directories is stored on the ext4 filesystem. The problem is that whenever I try to access a certain directory for the first time since boot ...
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2answers
4k views

Give read-only access to specific folders?

I would like to give read-only access to a user but I want him/her to see only the exact folders I give access. for example he/she shouldn't travel around all the server and browse to all users ...
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8 views

Not detecting hfs+ partition on second drive

I'm having a problem, I want to backup some files to my second drive before reinstalling, but I can't mount it. The filesystem is contained in /dev/sdb10, according to GParted, but that doesn't exist ...
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1answer
23 views

How can I (easily) map a block device node to the directory it's mounted on?

I need to find (in C or C++) the used space on a filesystem (Linux) when being provided only with the disk block device name and the partition number. For most filesystems I can go: Craft a dev ...
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1answer
15 views

Backup Files on ext4 to external NTFS drive

Would there be any problems in copying files on my Linux system with ext4 filesystem to an external drive that is formatted in NTFS? I'm reinstalling my OS and intend to copy these files back to my ...
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84 views

Converting ext2 to ext4

I have a file-server with three disk's that are ext2 file-systems, is it possible to change/convert these to ext4 which have much improved characteristics, while data is on the disk's and without ...
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4answers
2k views

Why is writing SLOW on raw device, and FAST on filesystem (USB key)?

I have a USB key (PQI U822V-Speedy 32G) that I am trying to benchmark quick'n'dirty on Linux. I'm testing write bandwith. dd on raw partition I created a partition starting at sector 2048, then did ...
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26 views

Can we delete or reduce allocated space to mounted filesystem?

Can we delete or reduce allocated space on an already mounted filesystem? I have already mounted or allocated 4 Gb space for a particular filesystem, but I need to reduce the allocated space to 1 GB. ...
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2answers
974 views

File system CRC check

I know that before running the kernel, u-boot (the boot loader) will check the kernel image CRC. Only if it is correct it will go further, else it will give a "Bad CRC" error. I want to do same thing ...
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30 views

Trying to setup a 2 way file sync in Linux

I am trying to setup a 2 way file sync in linux of reasonably small data-set. I would like to replicate data over WAN so distributed filesystems like gluster are not in point of my interest - they are ...
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19 views

Kernel problem after editing filesystem.squashfs

I use Kali Live linux (which is based on Debian), today I tried to edit filesystem.squashfs file which is located at /live/filesystem.squashfs using squashfs-tools. First I extracted this file using ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the purpose of flag kern.geom.debugflags in FreeBSD?

My question is as stated above, on a FreeBSD system, what is the use of the kern.geom.debugflags ? I see it written before the command to write on to a disk. sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16 What ...
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2answers
54 views

Can a linux filesystem be backed up by copying the file structure tree only?

This might be considered to be more of an academic question but here goes. Returning to Linux after some years away, I installed Ubuntu 15.04 Desktop on a small PC. Looking around the file system ...
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33 views

Relationship between IO scheduler and cpu/process scheduler?

The concepts of IO scheduler and CPU scheduler confuse me. Below are my understanding: Linux uses CFS scheduler + nice values by default to schedule processes. Each process has an IO queue. There ...
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4answers
245 views

Prevent file corruption

I have an application that write files into a specific directory at the FS. This system, under no circumstances, can lose a single written file. When I have some problem at the HD, like badblocks or ...
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2answers
985 views

How to make a temporary file in RAM?

I have a script that will pipe its output to |tee scriptnameYYMMDD.txt. After each cycle of the for loop in which the output is generated, I'll be reversing the file contents with tac ...
2
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1answer
29 views

External command to force ofstream to flush

I have a C++ ofstream that, for performance reasons, I don't flush from inside the code. However, occasionally I need to inspect the file contents. Is there a Linux command that will force the ...
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1answer
5k views

Read-only file system error while creating a directory?

I have one of our production Ubuntu machines set up by PRODUCTION Unix team here in our company, but somehow when I am doing like this - root@machineA:/test01# ls -lt ls: reading directory .: ...
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1answer
504 views

How can I get write access to my usb drives?

I have trouble writing to external drives. They are monuted automatically in Nautilus, but I can not copy anything there ('Paste' and 'create Folder' are just greyed out). Does Anyone have ideas what ...
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104 views

Why is there a file called [ in my /usr/bin directory? [duplicate]

Recently back to Linux from another operating system I noticed a file called [ which seems strange to me. What is it for? $ ls -l /usr/bin | head -2 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 39552 Nov 3 14:44 [ ...
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Why does '/' have the inode 2?

On many *nix systems like OS X and Ubuntu, We can see the inode of root directory is 2. Then what is the inode 1 used for?
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21 views

Can't find the location of DUMPed file system

I dumped a file system, chose the name for the dump ("home_fs_dump"), the dump was declared successfull, and yet I couldn't locate this name anywhere in the system. (And at the end I tested if locate ...
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1answer
90 views

Mount linux mount in windows (without ftp)?

I successfully mounted my external hard drive (ntfs) to /mnt/seagate. I'm using debian and the server is connected over LAN to my PC. So how can I mount my hard drive in my windows explorer without ...
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2answers
41 views

How to mount a filesystem by 2 operating systems simultaneously?

I was wondering, is it possible to have my Raspberry Pi mount the SD that is also mounted by an digital camera? I have a scenario where I take pictures relatively fast (Raspberry Pi triggers the ...
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1answer
97 views

What is a bind mount?

What is a “bind mount”? How do I make one? What is it good for? I've been told to use a bind mount for something, but I don't understand what it is or how to use it.
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Querying an overlayfs

I'm looking for a way to query a mounted overlay filesystem (overlayfs) in order to check it's upper and lower directory, but until now I haven't found any suitable command for that. Is there is a way ...
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2answers
93 views

Are there widespread filesystems which represent directories with structures optimized for fast lookup?

In "The Art of Unix Programming", on the topic of The Terminfo Database I read: If you look in the terminfo directory, you'll see subdirectories named by single printable characters. Under each ...
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7k views

How to force drop all partitions and erase disk from terminal?

My question is in fact related to OS X, however I'm using Linux tools to resolve my problem. I'm trying to delete all the partitions on my SSD drive and create new GUID (HFS+) partition table. Native ...
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88 views

how to create multi tar archives for a huge folder

I have a large folder with 30M small files. I hope to backup the folder into 30 archives, each tar.gz file will have 1M files. The reason to split into multi archives is that to untar one single large ...
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Difference between fsarchiver and dump

What is the difference between dump and fsarchiver? Are there features in dump which are not covered by fsarchiver? Can both backup to tape storage for example?
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1answer
297 views

How do case-insensitive filesystems display both upper and lower case file names?

This question occurred to me the other day when I was working on a development project that relies on an opinionated framework with regard to file names. The framework (irrelevant here) wanted to see ...
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1answer
68 views

“mount: wrong fs type..” error when mounting USB

I'm stuck trying to mount a USB drive on a Raspberry Pi (Wheezy). I've reformatted it (ext4) and tried re-mounting it in /media/owncloud (following sudo chown -R pi:pi /media/owncloud), but hit an ...
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1k views

How is a directory a “special type of file”?

I am reading this Unix tutorial and came across this quote... We should note here that a directory is merely a special type of file. ...but no explanation or details are provided. How is a ...
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1answer
29 views

Is it possible to store data directly inside an inode on a Unix / Linux filesystem?

According to this Red Hat bug report (which I am trying to reproduce) it looks like the Netapp filer is able to store data directly in the inode, in case of very small files. Considering I had a FS ...
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55 views

How to you force fsck at reboot on FreeBSD10?

I need to force a file system check on reboot to try and fix my mounted file system. All the commands/methods I find are obsolete in FreeBSD10 [\u@vader:/root] # tune2fs -c 1 /dev/vtbd0p2 tune2fs: ...
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What could be the output of command `lsblk -f -r | grep ' /' | grep -v ' /boot'` on encrypted drives?

Suppose we have drives which are encrypted, what could be the output of following command in Debian based (specially Ubuntu OS)? lsblk -f -r | grep ' /' | grep -v ' /boot'
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usbfs: process 25093 (pool) did not claim interface 0 before use

I recently got a new phone, a Moto G 2nd Gen. I am running Debian Jessie on kernel 3.16.0-4-amd64 libmtp 1.1.8-1 libusb-1.0-0 2:0.1.12-1 gvfs 1.22.2-1 When I plug it in, it appears to be fine. ...
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What is a Superblock, Inode, Dentry and a File?

From the article Anatomy of Linux File Systems by Tim Jones, I read that Linux views all the file systems from the perspective of a common set of objects and these objects are superblock, inode, ...
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1answer
47 views

Moving /usr/lib without breaking everything

I want to move this directory in following way: sudo mv /usr/lib /tmp/bad_files/ sudo mkdir /usr/lib sudo mv /tmp/bad_files/lib/* /usr/lib/ Why do I want do do this? I have filesystem-related ...
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4answers
12k views

How does the sticky bit work?

SUID The sticky bit applied to executable programs flagging the system to keep an image of the program in memory after the program finished running. But I don't know that what it's stored in ...
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Where do I put my web services? [closed]

I'm administrating my server since a few year but I'm looking for good practice like: What is the best place web service like my wordpress website files? My etherpad-lite instance? Which user shall ...
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How to get the complete and exact list of mounted filesystems in Linux?

I usually use mount to check which filesystems are mounted. I also know there is some connection between mount and /etc/mtab but I'm not sure about the details. After reading How to check if /proc/ is ...
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Format windows (NTFS) hard drive on Ubuntu using command line

This is really a two part question. I've never formatted a hard dirve on Linux/Unix, so please bear with me. I had an old Windows machine which recently died. So I decided to put the hard drive into ...
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2answers
977 views

Debian won't boot: udevd fails to load device sda and sdb

I can't boot my Debian system, I got this error during boot up: Driver 'pcspkr' is already registered, aborting. I have solved this by adding blacklist snd-pscp to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf ...
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4answers
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Mounting multiple devices at a single mount point on Linux

Is there a way to mount multiple hard drives to a single mount point? Let's say I run out of space on /home and decide to add an extra hard drive to the computer. How do I scale the space on a mount ...