A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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ext4 file system tuning for storage partition

I searched the Internet, but I was not able to find a satisfying answer to my problem. The Problem I'm encountering currently is, that I'm transitioning my data from a NTFS Partition to a ext4 ...
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1answer
66 views

“ls -l” shows some abnormal files with “?”

Recently I ran into a problem with FTP server access. The server system logs shows that /etc/wu-ftpd/ftpaccess file is missing, as below: wu-ftpd[15695]: cannot open access file ...
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561 views

How does Unix implement file permissions?

I have a text file named foo.txt with root permission in one Linux distribution. I copied it to another Linux distribution on another computer. Would file permissions be still maintained for ...
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Mapping a physical sector to a filename

I just finished using ddrescue to recover the contents of a failing hard drive. It was able to recover everything but two sectors. How do I figure out which files (if any) occupied those sectors? ...
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2answers
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How many inodes do I need to access to read a file?

Imagine I want to access the blocks of file /hello/file. How many inodes should I walt through? I guess two, since I should not go through the root inode, right?
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79 views

Repeated Ext4-fs error with comm psad: invalid block. Does it mean the SSD is dying?

Configuration : Debian Jessie with SSD. /dev/sda1 is root filesystem, /dev/sda6 is home filesystem. Errors occurs only on /dev/sda1. For the third time, I've got software errors because the root ...
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Can the filesystem become inconsistent if interrupted when moving a file?

I have two folders on the same partition (EXT2) If I mv folder1/file folder2 and some interruption occur (e.g. power failure) could the file system ever end up being inconsistent? Isn't the mv ...
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17 views

Filesytem errors during boot

I am using OMAPL138 and kernel version 2.6.37 and I would like to improve the boot time of my system. I made some progress on this, but I still have some errors which may be causing delay in the boot ...
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41 views

How do file permissions work with partition filesystem?

If I store a file in ext2, ext3, or ext4 formatted partition, it's permission is saved. I mean, I can have different permissions for different files in extX partition. However, If I store a file in ...
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15 views

Not detecting hfs+ partition on second drive

I'm having a problem, I want to backup some files to my second drive before reinstalling, but I can't mount it. The filesystem is contained in /dev/sdb10, according to GParted, but that doesn't exist ...
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245 views

rm -rf: cannot remove `/opt/jetty': Directory not empty

I have a script using the following command to remove a folder: ssh -q root@hostname sh -c 'rm -rf /opt/jetty/' Most of the times it works fine, but occasionally I get this message: rm: cannot ...
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45 views

Precaching the list of files of the filesystem

I was wondering where and in what form a list of files and directories is stored on the ext4 filesystem. The problem is that whenever I try to access a certain directory for the first time since boot ...
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1answer
122 views

How can I (easily) map a block device node to the directory it's mounted on?

I need to find (in C or C++) the used space on a filesystem (Linux) when being provided only with the disk block device name and the partition number. For most filesystems I can go: Craft a dev ...
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1answer
56 views

Backup Files on ext4 to external NTFS drive

Would there be any problems in copying files on my Linux system with ext4 filesystem to an external drive that is formatted in NTFS? I'm reinstalling my OS and intend to copy these files back to my ...
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216 views

Converting ext2 to ext4

I have a file-server with three disk's that are ext2 file-systems, is it possible to change/convert these to ext4 which have much improved characteristics, while data is on the disk's and without ...
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0answers
39 views

Can we delete or reduce allocated space to mounted filesystem?

Can we delete or reduce allocated space on an already mounted filesystem? I have already mounted or allocated 4 Gb space for a particular filesystem, but I need to reduce the allocated space to 1 GB. ...
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68 views

Trying to setup a 2 way file sync in Linux

I am trying to setup a 2 way file sync in linux of reasonably small data-set. I would like to replicate data over WAN so distributed filesystems like gluster are not in point of my interest - they are ...
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51 views

Kernel problem after editing filesystem.squashfs

I use Kali Live linux (which is based on Debian), today I tried to edit filesystem.squashfs file which is located at /live/filesystem.squashfs using squashfs-tools. First I extracted this file using ...
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Can a linux filesystem be backed up by copying the file structure tree only?

This might be considered to be more of an academic question but here goes. Returning to Linux after some years away, I installed Ubuntu 15.04 Desktop on a small PC. Looking around the file system ...
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1answer
100 views

Relationship between IO scheduler and cpu/process scheduler?

The concepts of IO scheduler and CPU scheduler confuse me. Below are my understanding: Linux uses CFS scheduler + nice values by default to schedule processes. Each process has an IO queue. There ...
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4answers
278 views

Prevent file corruption

I have an application that write files into a specific directory at the FS. This system, under no circumstances, can lose a single written file. When I have some problem at the HD, like badblocks or ...
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1answer
48 views

External command to force ofstream to flush

I have a C++ ofstream that, for performance reasons, I don't flush from inside the code. However, occasionally I need to inspect the file contents. Is there a Linux command that will force the ...
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126 views

Why is there a file called [ in my /usr/bin directory? [duplicate]

Recently back to Linux from another operating system I noticed a file called [ which seems strange to me. What is it for? $ ls -l /usr/bin | head -2 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 39552 Nov 3 14:44 [ ...
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Why does '/' have the inode 2?

On many *nix systems like OS X and Ubuntu, We can see the inode of root directory is 2. Then what is the inode 1 used for?
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1answer
32 views

Can't find the location of DUMPed file system

I dumped a file system, chose the name for the dump ("home_fs_dump"), the dump was declared successfull, and yet I couldn't locate this name anywhere in the system. (And at the end I tested if locate ...
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1answer
668 views

What is a bind mount?

What is a “bind mount”? How do I make one? What is it good for? I've been told to use a bind mount for something, but I don't understand what it is or how to use it.
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1answer
178 views

Mount linux mount in windows (without ftp)?

I successfully mounted my external hard drive (ntfs) to /mnt/seagate. I'm using debian and the server is connected over LAN to my PC. So how can I mount my hard drive in my windows explorer without ...
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How to mount a filesystem by 2 operating systems simultaneously?

I was wondering, is it possible to have my Raspberry Pi mount the SD that is also mounted by an digital camera? I have a scenario where I take pictures relatively fast (Raspberry Pi triggers the ...
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44 views

Difference between fsarchiver and dump

What is the difference between dump and fsarchiver? Are there features in dump which are not covered by fsarchiver? Can both backup to tape storage for example?
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388 views

How do case-insensitive filesystems display both upper and lower case file names?

This question occurred to me the other day when I was working on a development project that relies on an opinionated framework with regard to file names. The framework (irrelevant here) wanted to see ...
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1answer
878 views

“mount: wrong fs type..” error when mounting USB

I'm stuck trying to mount a USB drive on a Raspberry Pi (Wheezy). I've reformatted it (ext4) and tried re-mounting it in /media/owncloud (following sudo chown -R pi:pi /media/owncloud), but hit an ...
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1answer
36 views

Is it possible to store data directly inside an inode on a Unix / Linux filesystem?

According to this Red Hat bug report (which I am trying to reproduce) it looks like the Netapp filer is able to store data directly in the inode, in case of very small files. Considering I had a FS ...
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52 views

What could be the output of command `lsblk -f -r | grep ' /' | grep -v ' /boot'` on encrypted drives?

Suppose we have drives which are encrypted, what could be the output of following command in Debian based (specially Ubuntu OS)? lsblk -f -r | grep ' /' | grep -v ' /boot'
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How to you force fsck at reboot on FreeBSD10?

I need to force a file system check on reboot to try and fix my mounted file system. All the commands/methods I find are obsolete in FreeBSD10 [\u@vader:/root] # tune2fs -c 1 /dev/vtbd0p2 tune2fs: ...
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196 views

usbfs: process 25093 (pool) did not claim interface 0 before use

I recently got a new phone, a Moto G 2nd Gen. I am running Debian Jessie on kernel 3.16.0-4-amd64 libmtp 1.1.8-1 libusb-1.0-0 2:0.1.12-1 gvfs 1.22.2-1 When I plug it in, it appears to be fine. ...
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280 views

how to create multi tar archives for a huge folder

I have a large folder with 30M small files. I hope to backup the folder into 30 archives, each tar.gz file will have 1M files. The reason to split into multi archives is that to untar one single large ...
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How is a directory a “special type of file”?

I am reading this Unix tutorial and came across this quote... We should note here that a directory is merely a special type of file. ...but no explanation or details are provided. How is a ...
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1answer
70 views

Moving /usr/lib without breaking everything

I want to move this directory in following way: sudo mv /usr/lib /tmp/bad_files/ sudo mkdir /usr/lib sudo mv /tmp/bad_files/lib/* /usr/lib/ Why do I want do do this? I have filesystem-related ...
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Where do I put my web services? [closed]

I'm administrating my server since a few year but I'm looking for good practice like: What is the best place web service like my wordpress website files? My etherpad-lite instance? Which user shall ...
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What can I do with btrfs “profiles”?

Reading through the btrfs (sub) command documentation, it can "balance only block groups with the given replication profiles", and "convert selected blocks to a given profile", and apparently it ...
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Deleting an Impossible File

A picture is worth a thousand words, so I want to start with that: From the image you can see that I have a ~500GB hard drive. The filesystem is ext4. On this 500GB hard drive, I have a file that ...
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409 views

Is there anyway to automatically mount a filesystem when I open a symbolic link to a directory on that filesystem?

I am using Arch with Xfce. Recently, I have created a symbolic link to a directory on a filesystem. But I don't want to mount the filesystem during boot or manually mount it before I open the ...
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2answers
107 views

Unable to mount root filesystem rw with journal

Trying to understand the whole journalling setup and from what I've read and tried, it's eluding me somehow. The root filesystem is ext3. Examining it via tune2fs -l /dev/root shows that ...
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Problems with file system

I created a partition with EXT4 file system and when I'm writing in this partition frequently the Kernel return the following error: Jan 01 01:17:54 infobuffer360 kernel: r7:c0561280 Jan 01 01:17:54 ...
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30 views

Permission to execute denied for every file in /tmp: [duplicate]

When I try to execute any program from the /tmp directory, it shows me /tmp/file_name: Permission denied. The same error is shown when I simply enter /tmp. The file system for /tmp is ramfs. I've ...
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Formatting btrfs for robust metadata

If I make three partitions on a HDD, it appears that the default (which is -m raid1) will only store two copies of each metadata block. Is there a way to store multiple copies, e.g. one on each ...
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56 views

Force Filesystem Reread / Remount

Is it possible to force a complete re-read of a mounted filesystem (EXT4) from disk in a blocking manner? I have a potential situation where independent and external hardware can modify a filesystem ...
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52 views

Can I mount a case-insensitive tmpfs/ramfs?

I would like to utilize the performance of tmpfs/ramfs for some file operations, but the programs/processes that use these files assume a case-insensitive file system. I cannot find any documentation ...
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How and where is file system meta data cached in Linux

My earlier question apparently had a wrong premise. I thought file system meta data was cached in the inode and dentry cache, but apparently not. When I do: # time find . > /dev/null real ...
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1answer
183 views

Remount a busy disk to read-only mode

I want to force a disk partition to read only mode and keep it read-only for more than 30 minutes. What I have tried: mount -o remount,ro (partition-identifier) (mount-point) -t (filesystem) ...