A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Download small ZFS formatted image

I don't run Linux myself, so I'm the odd one out here, but I have hopelessly been searching for a small image file that contains ZFS (e.g. ZFS formatted media). I like to implement ZFS recognition in ...
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42 views

How to find directories whose size is greater than 4K?

When you have many files in one directory, the size of the directory file grows because it needs to store more entries. So, at some point it could look like this: # ls -ldh /var/log drwxr-xr-x 15 ...
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How to format a partition inside of an img file?

I created an img file via the following command: dd if=/dev/zero bs=2M count=200 > binary.img It's just a file with zeroes, but I can use it in fdisk and create a partition table: # fdisk ...
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16 views

Change the owner of an ntfs filesystem mounted via fstab

I want to mount a partition on boot and need it to have read, write and execute permissions. I'm using 64-bit Arch Linux and created the following /etc/fstab file: /dev/sda1 ...
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How are the reserved GDT blocks used after online resizing in ext3 file system

I am working on Ext3 and after looking at FS layout - ext3 reserves ~1024 blocks as Reserved Group Descriptor Table (reserved GDT blocks are between Group Descriptor blocks and Bitmap blocks). These ...
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42 views

Open source OS/File Backup solution [closed]

There are quite professional "OS/File" Backup solution from many vendors like Symantec BackupExec/Veeam. But those solutions aren't free & requires license. I am planning to build a open source ...
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41 views

Conceptualizing btrfs - understanding snapshots, and space used

Just starting to learn about btrfs and considering switching. My current thought of btrfs is that operates pretty much like git, with everything tracked, and a commit happening every 30 seconds after ...
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28 views

Using btrfs to sandbox programs

First, for this post, I'm using the term sandbox to really mean separation of filesystem changes only. Neither of these methods would: isolate processes in the sandbox from interacting with other ...
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98 views

How to detect special hidden files in Linux (e.g. .reiser_priv)?

I've recently found out that there are special hidden directories found on Linux that are not displayed with ls -a command. Namely the one I encountered is .reiserfs_priv directory located in the root ...
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26 views

Misc file corruption freebsd 10 and dns zone file

The computer is a VPS from Vultr. They tell me that "since it is loaded into RAM and not really a drive, nothing on the host would be causing this." One particular file, my zone file, will come up ...
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31 views

Monitor folders mounted via SSHFS

I want to monitor changes made a folder that is mounted via SSHFS. I have tried iwatch but it does not notify when a new file is created, below is the syntax I am using with iwatch: iwatch -e create ...
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How to track resources' (inodes, blocks) usage change upon starting a program

I am supposed to track how file system's usage of resources (i-nodes, blocks) changes before I start a program, after I start a program, delete its executable file, and then finally after I kill its ...
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Recursively lowercase, replace space and remove invalid characters on linux FS

I want to recursively run the following commands on a directory as part of a cron. The first line changes everything to lowercase, the second replaces spaces with _ and the third removes all invalid ...
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62 views

What should I consider when choosing a filesystem for a personal disk archive / cold storage?

I have a few TB of media files that never changes and that I need to store safely. Since it's a personal business it's overkill to set up a disk server et cetera, so I use the simple solution of ...
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46 views

Copy BTRFS partition to external harddisk BTRFS partition including snapshots

I have a question about backuping BTRFS partitions. Assume I have a BTRFS partition on /dev/sda1 and an external harddrive with BTRFS on /dev/sdb1. I already found out I can make an initial backup ...
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69 views

Can an NFS stale file handle persist for 2 complete days without any sign?

I have my home directory on an NFS file server, our IT team has moved to another server one week ago. Before the move, I killed all my processes with killall -u my_user_name. After the move, I was ...
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4k views

How are file types known if not from file suffix?

I would like to know how file types are known if filenames don't have suffixes. For example, a file named myfile could be binary or text to start with, how does the system know if the file is binary ...
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4answers
140 views

any large inode size benefits? (ext4)

From some foggy memories I thought I would "improve" the default settings when creating a Linux partition and increased the inode size to 1024, and also turned on -O bigalloc ("This ext4 feature ...
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127 views

How to find out whether two directories point to the same location

Do the following paths point to the same disk location? /home/username /app/home/username
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1answer
243 views

ext4: Can a clean filesystem need journal recovery?

I always thought "clean" is a synonym of does not need journal recovery. However that does not seem to be the case $ sudo file -s /dev/sdc4 /dev/sdc4: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data, ...
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129 views

Mounted Filesystems showing wrong details

I am using SLES 11 SP3. When I run df -lh in order to see mounted filesystems I get following results, which are correct: Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sdb3 9.9G 2.9G ...
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131 views

Filesystems not mounting on boot?

I'm getting this error after rebooting: Scanning for Btrfs filesystems * Stopping Read required files in advance [ OK ] * Starting Mount filesystems on boot ...
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341 views

Is there an equivalent way to remember directories on mounted volumes like DOS

A while ago, I moved from a purely Windows environment to using Windows and a Mac. Whilst I am slowly getting used to my Mac and loving it, there are a few things that frustrate me. One of them is ...
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44 views

Moving 4 system folders to 1 separated partition

Some background: I have installed Linux Mint 17 Cinnamon on my laptop SSD on a 10GB formatted partition and i have another HDD with 75GB, both ext4 formatted. The question part: I have two partitions ...
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3answers
370 views

On a Linux system, see how busy is file system

I want to know of a command that will show me how (currently) busy is the file system. I'm assuming there exists such a command that will show me this. With such command, are there specific arguments ...
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55 views

Partition table-less HDD [duplicate]

Just this morning, I accidentally created a hdd filesystem without a partition table. I didn't even know it was possible but it happened. Now the issue is to undo it or leave it alone. For this ...
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74 views

Filesystem check or mount failed on elementaryOS Freya

I had to move to a temporary workspace for a short time which runs on very bad hardwares, so I bought an SSD trying to speed it up. Now, I have installed elementaryOS Freya and my development ...
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1answer
26 views

Redhat 5.11 Just showing 1.5TB Storage

We purchased new supermicro server with 3*3TB HDDs. Now from Hardware Raid controller i created Raid 5 .So the total use able storage is 5TB something. But during installation Redhat is just showing ...
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98 views

Creating separate volume for /var/log/ and /var/log/audit/

I need to migrate /var/log/ and /var/log/audit to separate volumes. Currently the entire /var/ directory is on a logical volume with ample space (45G). I understand how to shrink and create new ...
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77 views

How much space does an inode occupy?

In Windows, when a file/folder is created, it is associated with an FRN (a unique number which is like an Index into the MFT). All the file metadata is stored in the MFT which occupies a reserved size ...
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25 views

Returning last-written file, containing particular sub-string in file name?

Whilst monitoring logging I have to go to my log files, order by written date, so I can then see the name of the log file for the most-recent execution of my application. Is there any way, given a ...
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37 views

BTRFS - removing drive by devid instead of path

I recently lost a 5 TB drive using btrfs. I had a system freeze (unsure why) while a balance was running. My SMR drive got corrupted. I was able to mount my array degraded and balance my data. ...
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Where am I supposed to put PyCharm files?

I've just downloaded PyCharm (pro) for Linux (I'm running Ubuntu). It's basically a zipped directory containing everything it needs to run (tree below), including an entry point (bin/pycharm.sh). ...
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Mount LVM volume as external usb drive? CentOS 6

I'm trying to mount my old 2x500GB drives to the new server which has the same drive volume. Both have LVM structure but it's not working. root@server [/mnt/usb]# ls /dev/sd* /dev/sda /dev/sda2 ...
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do I need fsck.ext4 before mounting a filesystem?

I have a script that mounts /dev/sdc1 to /home. I do not know the state of /dev/sdc1 in advance, it could possibly be "dirty". Do I need to run fsck.ext4 before mounting the filesystem, or has mount ...
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50 views

Help about CentOS 7 apps & Driver [closed]

I'm using pc for several years but never tried Linux so I'm quite noob in this field. I'm using Autodesk maya, Nuke & will learn houdini very soon. I found that linux works faster for this apps so ...
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358 views

'Docker' File System - Compatibility with Symbolic Links

The question is marked in bold if you wish to skip the explanation of our situation. I work as a developer for a server network. We deploy multiple instances of our servers. we have 5 types of server ...
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ls - why is parent directory smaller than its contents? How to see the size of directory's contents? [duplicate]

So... ls -l --block-size=MB tells me that directory is one MB ls -l --block-size=MB directory tells me there's a 3MB file inside the directory. Shouldn't that make the directory at least 3MB? ...
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directory structure vs file system

What is the difference between directory structure and file system? Unix/Linux directories and file system looks as follows: The following two directories obviously we know directories. ...
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Why are these files in an ext4 volume fragmented?

I have a 900GB ext4 partition on a (magnetic) hard drive that has no defects and no bad sectors. The partition is completely empty except for an empty lost+found directory. The partition was formatted ...
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Why is proc called a file system?

The proc file system allows the kernel to communicate information about each running process on a Linux system. Why is proc called a file system? It’s not a real file system like ext4. It’s just a ...
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157 views

NTFS-3G: All files are an “unsupported reparse point”

I just connected my NTFS HDD to my homeserver and I have an odd problem. EVERY file on the HDD is displayed as an "unsupported reparse point" in ls -lsa I tried mounting with different permissions ...
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583 views

`ls` error when directory is deleted

I have two shells open. The first is in directory A. In the second, I remove directory A, and then recreate it. When I go back to the first shell, and type ls, the output is: ls: cannot open ...
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117 views

ext4 file system tuning for storage partition

I searched the Internet, but I was not able to find a satisfying answer to my problem. The Problem I'm encountering currently is, that I'm transitioning my data from a NTFS Partition to a ext4 ...
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1answer
71 views

“ls -l” shows some abnormal files with “?”

Recently I ran into a problem with FTP server access. The server system logs shows that /etc/wu-ftpd/ftpaccess file is missing, as below: wu-ftpd[15695]: cannot open access file ...
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586 views

How does Unix implement file permissions?

I have a text file named foo.txt with root permission in one Linux distribution. I copied it to another Linux distribution on another computer. Would file permissions be still maintained for ...
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Mapping a physical sector to a filename

I just finished using ddrescue to recover the contents of a failing hard drive. It was able to recover everything but two sectors. How do I figure out which files (if any) occupied those sectors? ...
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How many inodes do I need to access to read a file?

Imagine I want to access the blocks of file /hello/file. How many inodes should I walt through? I guess two, since I should not go through the root inode, right?
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Repeated Ext4-fs error with comm psad: invalid block. Does it mean the SSD is dying?

Configuration : Debian Jessie with SSD. /dev/sda1 is root filesystem, /dev/sda6 is home filesystem. Errors occurs only on /dev/sda1. For the third time, I've got software errors because the root ...
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Can the filesystem become inconsistent if interrupted when moving a file?

I have two folders on the same partition (EXT2) If I mv folder1/file folder2 and some interruption occur (e.g. power failure) could the file system ever end up being inconsistent? Isn't the mv ...