A filesystem is a method of storing and organizing computer files and their data.

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Why is writing so slow on raw device, and so fast on filesystem (USB key)?

I have a USB key that I am trying to benchmark quick'n'dirty on Linux. I'm testing write bandwith. dd on raw partition I created a partition starting at sector 2048, then did a 4 GB sequential ...
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3answers
115 views

What filesystem metadata operations are actually journaled in ext4 & xfs?

I can't find a simple, straight answer about which filesystem metadata operations are actually persisted to the ext4 & xfs filesystem journals. Note that I am not inquiring about what POSIX ...
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3answers
52 views

How to know if /dev/hda2 is Primary partition or Extended partition

If all four primary partitions exist on an IDE drive, they are numbered as follows: /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3 /dev/hda4 We have also the partitions on a disk with one primary partition and ...
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2answers
640 views

Querying an overlayfs

I'm looking for a way to query a mounted overlay filesystem (overlayfs) in order to check it's upper and lower directory, but until now I haven't found any suitable command for that. Is there is a way ...
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2answers
696 views

Debian won't boot: udevd fails to load device sda and sdb

I can't boot my Debian system, I got this error during boot up: Driver 'pcspkr' is already registered, aborting. I have solved this by adding blacklist snd-pscp to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf ...
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2answers
4k views

ext3 root filesystems goes read-only with aborted journal even after repairs

Short version: ext3 root filesystem on rackspace (xen) VM detects aborted journal on boot and mounts read-only. I've attempted to repair this from a rescue environment with tune2fs and e2fsck as ...
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2answers
46 views

Mount compressed tar file and update it

How do I mount a .tar.gz file, update it (add new files, edit files), and then unmount it such that changes are reflected in the original compressed file? I'm open to other compression formats if no ...
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2answers
37 views

How to make file system on DVD

I ran the below command to check file system on a few DVDs. sudo file -s /dev/sr0 The DVDs which were working had responded properly to this command. But the DVDs which were not getting burnt (by ...
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395 views

File system CRC check

I know that before running the kernel, u-boot (the boot loader) will check the kernel image CRC. Only if it is correct it will go further, else it will give a "Bad CRC" error. I want to do same thing ...
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2k views

How to force drop all partitions and erase disk from terminal?

My question is in fact related to OS X, however I'm using Linux tools to resolve my problem. I'm trying to delete all the partitions on my SSD drive and create new GUID (HFS+) partition table. Native ...
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2answers
881 views

What is “Ext'd (LBA)” in fdisk output?

This is my partition table. Output of fdisk -l Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 63 204796619 102398278+ 7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT /dev/sda2 ...
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1answer
556 views

Preventing access blocking while external HDD spins up?

I have an old laptop where I installed Debian along with a samba server which I am using to share read-write access to 4 external hard drives, which I use to stream my media from. All works fine, ...
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1answer
77 views

Why doesn't the Linux vfat driver allow certain characters?

The Linux vfat driver seems to disallow certain characters in vfat long file names: ?<>\:*|". I understand that Windows doesn't support these characters, but Wikipedia seems to indicate that the ...
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1answer
2k views

What options are there for tuning Linux file system caching?

What various types of caching are possible in the ext3 file system and how can their values be changed using system calls or other methods? I don't want to use commands or tools.
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1answer
26 views

How do I find out what filesystem drivers are compiled-in into the linux kernel?

On a running linux system, what is a portable (among linux distributions) way to find out what filesystems the current kernel has compiled-in (not through modules) support for? Consider for example ...
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1answer
64 views

What makes fsck so slow on big filesystems?

I have over a dozen of filesystems on my OpenBSD server with 12GB DDR3 and several 1.5TB HDDs. All filesystems themselves are generally between 8GB and 64GB in size. I've noticed that even by ...
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1answer
99 views

Something like VMware “Changed Block Tracking” (CBT) in linux

I'm wondering if is there any possibility to track changed blocks in linux with an ext3/ext4 filesystem (or a specific one supporting it). I mean a feture like the Changed Block Tracking (CBT) ...
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1answer
298 views

How do I mount a UFS disk in read-write mode?

I have a system drive that has filled up to the last sector, so that it doesn't boot anymore. The file system is UFS (it's an old Freenas 0.7 installation), but since UFS write support doesn't appear ...
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1answer
114 views

Is there a way to show all flags in /proc/mounts?

Some filesystem flags seem to be hidden in /proc/mounts, depending on whether they are defined as defaults. Is there a way to show all flags in /proc/mounts, also including the default ones? And if ...
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1answer
44 views

How are files opened in unix?

What's the internal process of opening a file? To open a file, the system converts the pathname to inode and from the inode search the corresponding driver disk portion to look for the content of the ...
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1answer
97 views

Relation between “Block Size”and “Upper Limits” in ext2

A similar looking question asks for the reason why the upper file limit could be 2 TB in ext2. I am trying to understand but the Documentation on ext2 but find this hard. Please correct me if I'm ...
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1answer
373 views

What determines the maximum file size in ext2 file system

I was reading the Kernel Documentation where it says There are various limits imposed by the on-disk layout of ext2. Other limits are imposed by the current implementation of the kernel code. ...
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1answer
108 views

Having trouble with LVM snapshot

I have a funtoo linux machine which I am trying to add ubuntu to (thats a whole other issue). It is encrypted with luks and has lvm on top of that. I have a 2 TB harddrive (sdb) which I would like ...
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1answer
926 views

Sphinx Search shutting down after `FATAL: accept() failed: Too many open files`

I'm running Sphinx Search Server V2.06 ( the latest stable release ) on an Amazon EC2 with Linux CentOS. In general it is running fine, but the searchd.log is showing this error over and over with ...
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1answer
72 views

Give read-only access to specific folders?

I would like to give read-only access to a user but I want him/her to see only the exact folders I give access. for example he/she shouldn't travel around all the server and browse to all users ...
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1answer
41 views

Directories are missing in recovery mode

My service provider booted my virtual server in the recovery mode and now I'm a little bit lost. I'd like to save some files from my web-directory but I can't find /var/www. Though there are files in ...
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1answer
46 views

Only write permission for a directory doesn't allow to rename (move) files inside?

In fact, I would like to ask more general question -- "what does write permission for a directory allow you to do exactly?" -- but let's approach it with a concrete example. It is a long question, if ...
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1answer
42 views

Filesystem types for encrypted partitions

I wish to encrypt two external hard drives using dm-crypt/LUKS for whole-disk encryption. I want one hard drive to have an ext4 filesystem for Linux use only, and the other to have an NTFS filesystem, ...
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1answer
68 views

Why isn't sda1 showing up in dev and how can I fix that?

I have an embedded Linux device and I was trying to copy some files to it. I plugged in a USB stick, the dmesg shows that it was recognized, but for some reason /dev/sda1 never showed up. I'm trying ...
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1answer
32 views

How can I determine the cause of CF card corruption?

I installed qnx in my CF card and made it bootable and it was working well. However, yesterday it stopped working while my system was running. Checking the filesystem revealed that it was corrupted. ...
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1answer
118 views

Best parameters for ext4 filesystem to handle virtualbox disk images

I have ext4 partition, which holds disk image files VirtualBox works with. They all are fixed-size images (i.e. files never change their size). They are defragmented as much as possible (with ...
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1answer
80 views

Unable to format a CF card

I have a compact flash card formatted to FAT16. I am unable to format it to any other file system. I used GParted to format the card to ext2 for example, after I do that, the file system becomes ...
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1answer
730 views

Mount exFAT file system as user without hardcoding

I've "solved" the following problem, but not in a desirable way. First, mounting exFAT file systems in Linux was truly as simple as this site says. The catch is, "as long as you are root." A user ...
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1answer
116 views

Filesystem not showing correct size in Mac OSX

I installed a new HDD and transferred my old data to it by using dd on my old HDD and then dd again to the new HDD. However, when booting from the new HDD, it does not recognize the new, larger disk ...
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1answer
129 views

/dev/shm/ecryptfs-$USER-Private keeps climbing in Kubuntu 12.10 Install

I'm having a problem with an installation of Kubuntu 12.10 with an encrypted home directory. I've been trying to figure it out for several weeks. For transparency, I'll note here that I posted this ...
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1answer
209 views

What parts of the filesystem to tmpfs/squashfs/sparseimage for USB live system

I want to create a live system on a USB key / SDCard with Linux Mint 14 (KDE or Debian Edition) that stores data persistently. The USB key needs to have at least one fat32 partition. As storage for ...
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1answer
21 views

What is the encryption function in Encfs?

I'm a newbie at Encfs. After I read a paper about Encfs, I figured out there is a Encryption layer in Encfs. So I tried to find exact encryption function. but I couldn't find that because there are ...
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1answer
108 views

Recover from ext2 filesystem corruption

I have a TinyCore (3.6) Linux distribution on a device of mine, which uses disk-on-module or compact flash storage. The filesystem is ext2. I have a LAMP stack on this device and I'm playing with a ...
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1answer
45 views

User Access Permissions

I have recently taken ownership of a (FreeBSD) FileServer and need to identify which shares users have access to on an individual basis. Is there an easy way to achieve this with a single command?
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1answer
73 views

How to increase the link count for a directory, link count went to 0?

I have made myself land in this situation, it is a chrooted workspace on my system where I virtualize the entire file system ( so its not actual /var/log ) Is there a way that I can either delete this ...
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1answer
58 views

Files replaced with Finder on Mac creating a copy on Samba's .recycle

Scenario: Ad Agency with Samba Server and multiple Mac users, 0 Windows users. vfs objects = recycle recycle:keeptree = yes recycle:repository = /storage/files/.recycle/%U Workflow: Before start ...
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1answer
145 views

System crashes during boot while mounting /lib/init/rw

After a nasty crash, my system keeps crashing during boot. After a little bit of investigation I have discovered that it crashes executing the following function (in /lib/inin/mount_functions): ...
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82 views

Span a directory on an SD card and an attached USB stick

Can I span a folder on the SD card on my Raspberry Pi with a folder on an attached USB device? I'd like to basically extend the size of a directory by using an attached USB memory stick. I'm running ...
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104 views

Real copy to Android device

When i copy files to the Android phone, they are copied to some cache, but they aren't written. I don't like it, because i don't know what is done. I've tried these methods: copying via thunar file ...