A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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What are btrfs generation_errs?

I have a btrfs file system that I've scrubbed a few times and found some errors. If I check the device status I see that I have generation_errs: $ sudo btrfs device stats /dev/nvme0n1p5 [/dev/...
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taking snapshots of a BTRFS volume mounted with nodatacow?

I plan to create two subvolumes on a BTRFS-formatted spinning disk. I plan to mount one of those subvolumes with nodatacow so that I can efficiently store virtual machine images and database files ...
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Understanding sparse files, dd, seek, inode block structure

At work we use sparse files as part of out Oracle VM environment for the guest disk images. After some questions from a colleague (which have since been answered) I am left with more questions about ...
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Pacman -Syu fails because /usr/bin/easy_install exists in filesystem

Pacman -Syu fails because /usr/bin/easy_install exists in filesystem Now I read on google plus that if you move easy_install out of the bin, it will work, I don't want to do that, why doing that? it'...
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Recover content of a directory when the block where directory file is located is corrupted?

A user has a Personal folder in it's /home/user folder. Bad sectors appeared on the hard drive. If I vi the Personal folder file it's empty and if I go into it and I do an ls, the system gets stuck ...
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How can I tell when my file system was last fsck-ed at all?

I know of various ways in which to check when the last fsck occurred on a file system. e.g. $ sudo dumpe2fs -h /dev/sda1 | grep 'Mount count' -A3 dumpe2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014) Mount count: ...
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54 views

How to determine which files are necessary in /bin, /lib, /var, etc.?

I'm currently trying to get an image working for a network boot using somebody else's file contents. The previous images I made keeping all original files present were way too big, so I need to shrink ...
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33 views

How to use puppet to format a partition with a file system

With a filesystem such as ext4 or xfs. But how can we make sure it doesn't do it again and again on each run. I want it to do just on the First Run
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Filesystem: How to find block of file represented by inode? [closed]

I am writing a file system for my operating system and am doing research on existing file systems before I start designing my own. I came across some slides about the System Five File System and am ...
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Using chroot to restore Kubuntu 14.04

I have accidentaly purged some system files and now Kubuntu 14.04 won't boot past the start up logo. I read online that I can perform changes on my system through my LiveUSB and the BASH chroot ...
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what's the best filesystem for small files on mdadm RAID10? [closed]

I need to setup a RAID on my Linux server and I am looking for advise about which filesystem I shall use. These are the type of files I am going to be writing/storing into my system. File size ...
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Most efficient way to thin out a backup which uses hardlinks

I have a backup disk which contains hundreds of backups of the same machine from different dates. The backup was made with rsync and hardlinks, i.e. if a file doesn't change the backup script just ...
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RHEL 6 filesystem

I'm reading about RHEL 6 and getting confused about a knowledge check. It tells me that not to use a computer to give an answer for this but the question is on a RHEL 6 system, mount /dev/sda12 /...
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Windows safe characters from Linux

I've been copying large amounts of files from a Linux backup to a NTFS partition. The purpose is to have all files accessible from Windows. From this experience I've learned the following. NTFS ...
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How to move from one filesystem to another without changing directory structure?

/dev/xvda1 is full so I want to move its contents onto my 30GB udev filesystem. Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on udev 30G 4.0K 30G 1% /dev tmpfs 5.9G 768K ...
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Mount(8) with mount(2)

I have a software that will unmount a partition programatically (if it's not busy) and mount it again after all of the work is done. If I run this in the terminal: sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/fat32 -o ...
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Some doubts about disk inconsistency

I have a system with 3 elements: An embedded system with this FAT lib that makes several operations in the FAT filesystem (e.g. add/remove file/dir, append to file). The sector read/write functions ...
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after running chown -R on home system is in read-only-mode [closed]

Unfortunately I run the following command: sudo chown -R m:m /home/m whereas m is my username. The intention was to fix some right issues for another problem, however it caused the whole system ...
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FUSE Overlay filesystem for “too long filenames”

Is there FUSE overlay filesystem, that: * resolve on it's own "too long filenames" for underlying filesystem * otherwise (for filenames fitting into limits of underlying filesystem) just proxy 1:1 ? ...
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What is a “file header” in Linux file systems?

The following sentence appears in an article in the web: All cryptographic metadata is stored in the headers of files, so encrypted data can be easily moved, stored for backup and recovered. ...
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How do I open access (+x) to a directory behind symlinks in one move?

For example, to open access to /sys/bus/usb/devices/1-1/, the following need to be done: chmod a+x /sys/bus/ chmod a+x /sys/bus/usb/ chmod a+x /sys/bus/usb/devices/ # files in "devices" are ...
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mount: Unrecognised segment type thin

So my Fedora Linux machine crashed during an update, and now refuses to start properly. I'm using SystemRescueCD to try to recover the contents of the hard drive. Following the steps in this post, I ...
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Embedded device, log partition, what file system is more resilient and uses less reads/writes?

I have an embedded Linux device with a read-only file system. I have another partition that is used to store an archive of logs. This partition will be written to a lot. What linux partition should I ...
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Union mount on Linux

A union mount presents a combined view of multiple directories (branches) in a single hierarchy. Ok, but how do I use one in practice, and which one? Many union mount technologies are available on a ...
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Man directory layout — why the subdirectories?

Man expects the man directories listed in $MANPATH or $(manpath) to be split by section into directories named "man$section". This duplicates the section information that is already available in the ...
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Is there filesystem that allows me to insert some block in the middle of file in O(1)?

Assuming we have huge file F. we like to put "around" seek s a new empty (filled with zeros) block in O(1) time (i.e. without rewriting all remining part) "around" means we can round s to nearest ...
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How does ext4 decide number of blocks of a file?

I'm playing with stat command which basically shows the inode information. Though I'm showing the information of a small file (146 characters), it shows 8 blocks. I was wondering why is that? Since ...
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Is it reasonable to use a journaling FS on a filesystem image that is stored on a filsystem that already provides journaling?

I need a filesystem image to put 150k files there, so they should be easily relocatable, i.e. mounted as a folder, when in use, unmounted and copied somewhere when needed. Due to the large number of ...
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Transmission keeps seeding after downloaded file has been deleted

I'm using Transmission 2.82 on Xubuntu 14.04, and I noticed that after I deleted the downloaded file permanently from files manager, the job in Transmission was still active and kept seeding, and ...
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Resize system partition

I would like to re-size xvda1 to 300G. I am using aws ec2 with Ubuntu 14.04. NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT xvda 202:0 0 300G 0 disk `-xvda1 202:1 0 8G 0 part / xvdb ...
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Incorrect used/free space

I've encountered this issue. I have a VM with Debian 8 on it. I gave that disk 350gb, /dev/sda1 is 344gb, used is 330gb and it's 100%. Situation is as follows, I'm importing huge mysql dump (300gb in ...
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What are the pros and cons of badblock's two non-destructive tests?

I use badblocks to test my 32GB class-10 microSD card that I use to boot my RPi. I already have a functioning file system on it, so I don't want to scan it with the -w option (destructive read-write ...
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Why is /dev a subdirectory of / (the root)? [closed]

Why is /dev a subdirectory of / (the root)? I ask because isn't everything in the file system also mounted from the computer's hard disk which show up in /dev? Then why isn't dev the root directory ...
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Is there a way to mount two folders into one mounting point, so that folders are mirrored?

I want some tool like $ mirroring_mount ~/first_location ~/second_location ~/mount_point So, when I edit file in ~/mount_point, it is edited in both locations, and if ~/first_location and ~/...
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White-list certain binaries and scripts inside a noexec/nosuid mount?

Just like the question. Is it possible to white-list certain executables from a noexec mounted FS? for instance, mine looks like this: /dev/vg/lv on /tmp type ext4 (rw,noexec,nosuid)
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File execution is denied

I just can't execute any file. For example: And I use zsh now,bash has the same problem.
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How to see information inside inode data structure

I can do an ls -li to see a file's inode number, but how can I list information inside a particular inode by using that inode number.
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How filesystem atomically writes a block to disk?

Block is an abstraction provided by filesystem, block size is integer multiples of disk sector size. Suppose a filesystem uses 4K as its block size, and the disk sector size is 512B, when the ...
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Determine affected file given logical block number [duplicate]

Given the logical block number from these log lines in /var/log/messages, is there a way to determine what file was affected? ...Buffer I/O error on device sdd1, logical block 203953715 ...lost page ...
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How can I share an internal disk via NFS? (What am I doing wrong?)

I have an NFS server (machine A) that mounts a 4TB internal hard drive at /data/Storage, and exports /data to client (Machine B). If I put a regular file in MachineA:/data, you can see it in MachineB:/...
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Is an ISO image file a filesystem in its own right?

I am trying to understand what the relationship a xxx.iso file has to the other aspects of a block device, e.g. partitions and a file system. It's common for people to describe accessing or making a ....
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How does ext[n] delete files?

I know that a lot of deleted files can theoretically be recovered, which suggests that "deleting" doesn't actually remove the information. So how do the various extN (e.g. ext4) filesystems delete ...
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Partition on raid array incorrectly states it is full

Sorry if this is the wrong place to post this question. I have a small home media (samba) server, which has a software (mdadm) raid10 array, with 4 disks, each being 3TB. It has only one xfs ...
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48 views

File permissions on Linux?

I am surprised that /mnt, /media or even /opt are not writable by myself on my own system (Linux-Ubuntu). Should I always use sudo for any action on these paths? Or would it be better to add myself ...
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Is CentOS using synchronous or asynchronous write

Is CentOS using synchronous or asynchronous write? Is ther any way to check or to change this?
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Is it possible to format a disk within an iPXE script?

I can mount a disk in the script, but it has to be formatted. I can't seem to find a way to format a disk within an iPXE script. Is it possible? How? Thanks
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Performance of FS directory structures

Given a large (hundreds of thousands objects) fs-based database of uniquely identified objects with potentially a large number of long prefixes with many objects sharing the same prefix are treeish ...
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What is using trillions of inodes on my almost empty server? [closed]

I have 18446744069923968593 inodes (which seem really too much) and much more problematic: I have 18446744069414835186 used so the system won't create any other file (even if the disk is almost empty)....
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How does Linux manage “simultaneous” writes to swap/disk partitions in virtual memory?

I'm currently working on an educational operating system called Pintos. While implementing virtual memory, one of the issues that I'm having is writing data to swap in a page fault that happened while ...
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Unable to create a filesystem on /dev/sda2 on a virtual machine , device showing busy, Kernel can't read partition table

This question has been asked several times on this platform, but none of the solution resolves my issue. Linux OS: RHEL 6.5 I created a partition /dev/sda2. # fdisk -l Device Boot Start ...