A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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What file systems support taking snapshot backups from a live system?

What file systems allows me to take a full snapshot of a full live partition, while active, in a state where all files have the same state as when the backup/snapshot process start ? I want to be ...
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How to ensure File System is Mounted with ' atime ' enabled ?

Let's run mount /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) tmpfs on /dev/shm type ...
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169 views

Access time is not being updated when i run ` ls a ` and then ` stat a`

On CentOS Linux desktop let's create a folder named a. mkdir a Then let's access it ls a and then let's get it's statistics stat a File: `a' Size: 4096 Blocks: 8 IO Block: ...
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Why are filenames that start with a dot hidden? Can I hide files without using a dot as their first character?

Initially I thought it was a coincidence, but now I see there's even a tag for it: all hidden file names start with a dot. Is this a convention? Why was it chosen? Can it be changed? Or in other words ...
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257 views

Atime value changing only once after file creation

I've mounted disk with explicit given value - atime: mount -o mount -o atime /dev/disk1 /myDisk then I've created a file by touch file_A after this operation stat output looks like that: ...
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How can I edit symlinks?

My basic understanding of a symlink is as a special file, a file that contains a string path to another file. The kernel's VFS abstracts a lot of that away but is there any reason why symlinks seem to ...
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423 views

What is the effect of setting immutable bit on /boot partition [closed]

What is the effect of setting immutable bit on /boot partition with perspective of security. is it advisable to set the immutable bit (-i) to everything under /boot? Will it enhance or degrade the ...
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What does “mounting fs with errors” mean in dmesg and what to do after that?

I run dmesg and this is what I see: EXT4-fs (sda1): warning: mounting fs with errors, running e2fsck is recommended EXT4-fs (sda1): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: Here is the ...
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147 views

ext4 drive takes forever to ls?

I've had an external HDD formatted in ext4 for a while. For some reason, it's started to take forever to list directories. Sometimes just running ls /mount/point/of/drive takes minutes, sometimes that ...
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59 views

Compare a filesystem to a dump

Is there a way to compare the current state of the filesystem to that stored in a backup created by dump? I recently had some major corruption in the filesystem and my most recent backup is from ...
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How does Linux, the kernel, mount filesystems? What actually does this?

My question concerns the Linux source, and if it actually contains the code necessary, natively to mount, parse, and use a filesystem, or if that's added to the source. If the Linux source contains ...
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How can I change the date modified of a folder to the last changed file inside? [duplicate]

In my media center directory all modified times of my folders are somehow not the desired date. How can I change all modified times of the main folders to the modified time of the newest media-file ...
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991 views

Make system robust against unexpected power loss

Are there any common or standard ways to make a system more robust against unexpected power loss (I.e., without proper shutdown)? I was using a UPS but the battery is dying and I haven't had a chance ...
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313 views

File size shown by “du -k” is different in different file systems (PRAMFS and FLASH)

I have a file xyz.log which is of size 1.72MB. In FLASH file system: If I run du -k xyz.log output is 1761 xyz.log. I copied the same file to RAM storage and run the du -k xyz.log output is 221 ...
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Finding sparse files?

Is there a straightforward way to find all the sparse files on my system, or in a particular directory tree? If it's relevant, I'm using zsh on Ubuntu 12.04, although a more generic Unix-y answer for ...
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Cannot modify files in my home directory

I have a laptop running Ubuntu Server 12.04 and suddenly, yesterday, I don't know what happened, but all the permissions changed of my home directory, so when ever I try to create a file, it says ...
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Reading SIM data via file managers using USB datamodem

How to browse a GSM SIM card's filesystem in Linux / nautilus / pcmanfm filemanager, and read the files with suitable editors ? There is one related post: Howto read SMS stored on a SIM card? But ...
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How to blacklist bad blocks from a MD-raid + dm-crypt + ext4?

I have a ext4 partition, on top of a dm-crypt, on top of a MD-RAID 10. One partition (/dev/sdc1) dropped out of the array with a ton of read errors. I ran the manufacturer provided diagnostic tool ...
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867 views

What can go wrong if /var/tmp is on a temporary filesystem?

I have read that I should not mount /var/tmp as a temporary filesystem (e.g., as tmpfs), because files in /var/tmp must not be deleted on reboot. Is that correct? Suppose I did mount /var/tmp as a ...
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296 views

Symbolic link of for my user, doesn't work for root

I am experimenting with the following scheme in order to share common data among different distributions. In Fedora I have created a symbolic link /home pointing to: ...
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Which filesystem to backup is the best? [closed]

I just bought a disk to backup all my documents and to store it apart and I don't know what is the filesystem under Linux that gave me better reliability. Maybe I'll backup one time each month and it ...
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114 views

How to increase the link count for a directory, link count went to 0?

I have made myself land in this situation, it is a chrooted workspace on my system where I virtualize the entire file system ( so its not actual /var/log ) Is there a way that I can either delete this ...
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FS permission scenario

How can I achieve this files & folders permissions scenario: Consider these folder: Folder A: 640 root apache /var/www/A/ Folder www: 640 root apache /var/www/ and this linux user: id user1: ...
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784 views

How can I merge root and home in Fedora?

I've installed fedora with default configuration few months back and now I want to arrange the mount points. /etc/fstab look like that: /dev/mapper/fedora_dhcppc4-root / ext4 ...
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System cannot load Ubuntu based OS's

I built a computer a few months ago, specs listed here. I then installed Linux Mint 13, but then when I wanted to install Ubuntu, the install would start, and I would select "Install". But when it ...
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When I move a file to a different directory on the same partition, does the file's data actually move on disk?

I could see it going both ways. If the filesystem stores it's directory structure and list of files in each directory, and then points to the disk location of each of the files, it shouldn't require ...
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Is it bad to have filesystems nearly full?

Example I have large/small sized filesystems JFS2/EXT3, whatever (and various OS, Linux, AIX), but some of them are on ex.: 90%, 95%, 98% usage. Questions: Having filesystems nearly full does ...
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aufs with lower writable branch

I'm trying to hide some directories on a mounted file system (it's not about security, just aesthetics). I've mounted the file system regularly on /mnt/data and wanted to use aufs to overlay a ...
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Edge cases in filesystem operations during backup and file copy

I have a question about file access in Linux that I cannot sum it up completely. Consider that I have a home directory that I backup it using rsync triggered via cron. My home directory is on an EXT4 ...
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229 views

How to make directory modication date change when files from that dir change?

For example, if a file has been changed in that directory, then directory modification date should be updated. Basically any changes that happen in that directory should trigger a "touch" on the ...
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2k views

Not possible to recover or delete file in a ext4 filesystem

How can I fix a message like this (read after a dmesg command)? EXT4-fs error (device hdb1): ext4_lookup: deleted inode referenced: 119197 EXT4-fs error (device hdb1): ext4_free_inode: bit already ...
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find ount what [flush-8:0] is writing

Using iotop, I found out that [flush-8:0] is doing a lot of hard disk activity, which explains the annoying slowdowns. However, I can't figure out what's the actual cause behind this flushing. No ...
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Does the order of partitions matter much?

I've just ran a test install of Arch on a separate computer, and now I'm ready to do the real thing on my main one. However, since the guide didn't explicitly recommend it, I did not install with a ...
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Copying Linux NFS files to a standard consumer external hard drive

I am a graduate student and a relative Linux novice. My institution has an in-house Linux cluster on which I run many scientific simulations. I have a Windows desktop computer from which I access ...
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Can I recover from a system disk error on Ubuntu Linux?

I got a strange looking warning message in Windows Vista about a potential hard disk failure. I say strange because I have never in my life seen that type of warning in Windows. It suggested that I ...
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how to find the type of img file and mount it

I have to mount a .img file but I don't know what type of .img it is. How can I figure out what type of .img file it is? # mount -t auto -o ro,loop gmapsupp.img /mnt/iso/ mount: you must specify the ...
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2answers
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How to write to ext2 image without having root access

I have been able to mount a ext2 image without having root access by adding an entry to /etc/fstab. However, I am not able to modify this image (copy a new file to it) without having sudo permissions. ...
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What's the difference between Linux and Linux LVM?

If I want to install new hard drive should I make the file system Linux or Linux LVM? Also after that I've got to format again with mkfs.ext4. Actually what are we doing? The first one is formatting ...
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not able to add files to HDD

I created a single primary partition to my WD WD800BB-55JHA0 80GB HDD using MBR partitioning scheme. Into this partition I created an ext4 file-system with 200048640 inodes! Then I created loads of ...
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279 views

Amazon EC2: Giving Permanent Permission To A Sepecific Directory In Amazon Linux AMI

I have a Symfony2 project that needs full read write permissions to three directories: app/cache, app/logs, and few other directories which are used for uploading. The problem is everytime I push an ...
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How to find the files that are last changed under a directory and its subdirectories?

I would like to know how to find the files that are last changed under a directory and its subdirectories. ls -lt doesnt work, because if a file is changed and therefore its time is changed to be up ...
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958 views

Does named pipe modify the filesystem?

As title. If I create a named pipe and then read/write on it, is the filesystem where the named pipe resides affected? I.e. is the data buffered on the filesystem until read, or does it reside in ...
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80 views

Non-persistent differencing file

I have a large file (5-10 GB) and want to access this file in a special file system with the following conditions/features: There is a single process that reads and write on the file. When the ...
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3k views

cannot create symbolic link on CentOS 5.6 - File exists error

I am trying to setup a symbolic link on my CentOS 5.6 machine to point dev_crmpicco/ to ~/vhosts/dev/dev_crmpicco/web/ I am using the following command: [crmpicco@devel dev]$ ln -s ...
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Any implementations of unix with “flat”, tag-based file systems?

As I understand, files in Unix are all stored in a "flat" structure in the hard drive -- the file system is merely links from directories to other directories and eventually to leaves/nodes/files. ...
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Dropbox on Debian EAGAIN error on NTFS share

I am experiencing some weird problems, when using dropbox on my Debian install: I run Debian with testing repositories enabled I have Dropbox installed from the website My dropbox-location is on a ...
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Using symbolic link on directory with contents

I'm working on a Debian machine with a bunch of different filesystems and I'm trying to manipulate a large amount of data in MySQL. I've run out of room in my home directory, but there's a ton of ...
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Append huge files to each other without copying them

There are 5 huge files ( file1, file2, .. file5) about 10G each and extremely low free space left on the disk and I need to concatenate all this files into one. There is no need to keep original ...
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281 views

Determining if a file system object is a procfs/sysfs/etc. “virtual file” which doesn't report its length correctly

Some kinds of pseudo-files, like many in the procfs and sysfs virtual file systems, have no file size (stat returns st_size == 0) and do not support SEEK_END in fseek. These file system objects, such ...
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Contiguous copy – How do I copy files contiguously?

I want to copy a number of files onto a flash drive such that each individual file is contiguous. They do not need to be contiguous with each other, and can be in any order. The files will be very ...