A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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26
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4answers
73k views

Recovering ext4 superblocks

Recently, my external hard drive enclosure failed (the hard drive itself powers up in another enclosure). However, as a result, it appears its EXT4 file system is corrupt. The drive has a single ...
1
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0answers
59 views

Cannot remove file: Read-only file system

I am trying to delete a file on an Ubuntu 12.04 system for which I have root access. However, I am getting this error: root@CRST-Web:/home/real_property/html# rm -r -f results.php rm: cannot remove ...
5
votes
3answers
503 views

On a Linux system, see how busy is file system

I want to know of a command that will show me how (currently) busy is the file system. I'm assuming there exists such a command that will show me this. With such command, are there specific arguments ...
86
votes
6answers
29k views

Why are hard links to directories not allowed in UNIX/Linux?

I read in text books that Unix/Linux doesn't allow hard links to directories but does allow soft links. Is it because, when we have cycles and if we create hard links, and after some time we delete ...
10
votes
6answers
647 views

File systems vs partitions vs directories

I am new to Linux so pardon me for the possible confusion you may encounter in this question. From what I understand, filesystem specifies how a partition stores/manages file, with standards such as ...
0
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0answers
20 views

How to set usb stick's ntfs filesystem's attribute to readonly in linux

I know how to set readonly attribute to ntfs filesystem of a usb device by using diskpart tool in windows. attributes disk set readonly but how to set readonly attribute to the same usb device ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

How do I load a kernel module later in the boot sequence?

I've been experimenting with the g_mass_storage kernel module. I first tried loading it by putting it in /etc/modules and the options in /etc/modprobe.d/file.conf This worked, but when I connected ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

/etc/fstab is mounting rw filesystem as read-only

A partition of my internal hard drive (not the root partition) I want to mount automatically on boot. I've been using /etc/fstab to mount my external backup drive automatically read-only, so this is ...
1
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2answers
2k views

Ext2 filesystem for /boot partition

Is the ext2 filesystem good for /boot partition? I set ext4 for / root partition, but wasn't sure which filesystem to select for the /boot partition, and I just set ext2. Does it matter in this case?
198
votes
5answers
36k views

/usr/bin vs /usr/local/bin on Linux

Why are there so many places to put a binary in Linux? There are atleast these five: /bin/ /sbin/ /usr/bin/ /usr/local/bin/ /usr/local/sbin/ And on my office box, I do not have write permissions ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Use “tune2fs” on XFS filesystem, get “Couldn't find valid filesystem superblock.”

I ran into this message two days ago=: tune2fs: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/vdc1 Couldn't find valid filesystem superblock. The system is Ubuntu, a KVM virtual machine ...
3
votes
3answers
24 views

“write-once archive”: ext2 vs ext4^has_journal vs

summary Suppose one is setting up an external drive to be a "write-once archive": one intends to reformat it, copy some files that will (hopefully) never be updated, then set it aside until I need to ...
1
vote
2answers
795 views

Check the filesystem format with BusyBox (stat -f and df -T do not work)

I am using latest BusyBox v1.22.1 in my target. I want to check the filesystem type using stat -f or df -T but busybox doesn't support such commands. busybox help shows stat command as supported but ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Why the ext4 filesystem can be shrunk only when not mounted?

I'm playing a little bit with LVM. I've noticed that I can add a new HDD, include it in the volume group, and add some space to all of the existing volumes without unmounting theirs filesystem or ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Why deleting big files from tmpfs is not instantaneous?

$ cat /proc/mounts | egrep ' /tmp ' tmpfs /tmp tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime 0 0 $ dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=3000 of=/tmp/q 3000+0 records in 3000+0 records out 3145728000 bytes (3.1 GB) copied, ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Symlink to same directory

I've set up a ftp server for using ftp push on a tv recording page. I've created an extra user for this, who has only access to one directory, which the user is chroot-ed in. But the page does not ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the difference between path and directory?

I don't understand the difference between path and directory. Could someone explain to me with examples?
0
votes
1answer
20 views

How to safely delete a regular directory that contains several btrfs snapshots inside it?

I have a regular directory than contains directly underneath it several btrfs snapshots. Is it safe to do an rm -rf on the parent directory, or do I need to first do a btrfs subvolume delete SUBVOL on ...
3
votes
0answers
29 views

How can I have a filesystem mounted during user login?

I would like a file based filesystem (~/Archives/inventory.locker) mounted upon user login and unmounted upon logout (~/Documents/Inventory). pam_mount seems to provide the functionality I am after, ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Mount a large squashfs in a way that allows random writes (to a separate filesystem)?

I just received a few-dozen-gigabyte squashfs that contains a PostgreSQL database. In order to be able to conveniently query it, I need to have a write access, which makes it complicated. Is there a ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

File system CRC check

I know that before running the kernel, u-boot (the boot loader) will check the kernel image CRC. Only if it is correct it will go further, else it will give a "Bad CRC" error. I want to do same thing ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

How much control do concrete file systems have over the VFS inode cache and the buffer cache?

I want to make sure I'm understanding how VFS inodes and file system inodes working together. A file system's inodes are stored on the block device and that is where they live. When an operation is ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Having trouble accessing my phone via USB

(I've searched the web for people that have had my exact problem, and couldn't find any, so if this is a repeat question I won't be offended by having this pulled, but I would appreciate being ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Remove filesystem from an unpartitioned disk

I have an un-partitioned 500GB disk with a ext3 fs using the entire disk. If I make sure there are no partitions on the disk using fdisk or parted, "ssm list" will still show an ext3 fs on the disk ...
53
votes
4answers
49k views

Reserved space for root on a filesystem - why?

I understand that by default, newly created filesystems will be created with 5% of the space allocated for root. I also know you can change the defined space with: tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sdXY What I'm ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Remounting is not supported at present. You have to umount volume and then mount it once again

I was not able to chmod a file in my /dev/sda3 on my Ubuntu12.04 system. This is what I get when I try to see its information: $ mount | grep 'media' /dev/sda2 on /media/sda2 type fuseblk ...
1
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1answer
2k views

kernel: “echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs”

I got this errors in syslog. Any idea what does it mean? The system is running on Ubuntu 12.04, kernel: 3.8.0-35-generic #52~precise1 It looks to me like failure when trying to write to disk... ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

KDE 5 plasma desktop slow filesystem operations

I have KDE 5 and Plasma Desktop, Kubuntu 15.10, and there is one annoying thing: file operations works very strange. If I'm removing some file first time until system was power on, KDE starting to ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Why isn't ext listed for file system types supported by my kernel?

I follow the reply here to list the types of file systems that my kernel can support. Why doesn't ls /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/fs list ext? My Ubuntu uses ext4 file systems.
2
votes
0answers
41 views

`stat -f` show a ext4 file system type as ext2/ext3

On Ubuntu 14.04, I am checking the ext4 filesystem for my home based on a file new in it: $ stat -f new File: "new" ID: 38d4cd29e44142c6 Namelen: 255 Type: ext2/ext3 Block size: 4096 ...
1
vote
2answers
28 views

Squashfs minimal compression?

I'd like to create a squashfs image of a directory, but it's a huge one and even minimal compression would be a big win. Is there a way to do something like mksquashfs -1?
0
votes
1answer
7 views

How do I reset the folder metadata size without recreating the folder?

I have a folder (watch) that got filled with a lot of temporary files by mistake. I've cleared out all of those files but the the folder is still 356 kB in size. In the past I've moved the folder out ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Do both “stat -f” and “cat /etc/fstab” show file system ids?

On Ubuntu 14.04, I am checking the filesystem for my home based on a file new in it: $ stat -f new File: "new" ID: 38d4cd29e44142c6 Namelen: 255 Type: ext2/ext3 Block size: 4096 ...
76
votes
12answers
7k views

Why is Linux's filesystem designed as a single directory tree?

Can anyone explain why Linux is designed as a single directory tree? Whereas in Windows we can have multiple drives like C:\, and D:\, there is a single root in Unix. Any specific reason there?
1
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0answers
11 views

Snapper - how to undo changes, preserving timestamps?

I've damaged modification dates of files on my drive and I wanted to revert them using snapper snapshots but it doesn't seem to work, snapper only reverts content of files not modification dates. ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Debian won't boot: udevd fails to load device sda and sdb

I can't boot my Debian system, I got this error during boot up: Driver 'pcspkr' is already registered, aborting. I have solved this by adding blacklist snd-pscp to /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

specify mount option in /etc/fstab (mode=1777)

I have following line in my /etc/fstab: /dev/mapper/tmp /tmp ext4 noexec,nodev,nosuid,mode=1777 0 0 When I try to mount /tmp, I get following error in dmesg: EXT4-fs (dm-1): ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

How to determine file system type reliably under Linux?

I want to be able to run a command which would print what exactly FAT version/subtype is a partition formatted in (FAT12/FAT16/FAT32/VFAT/exFAT) Some guys suggests following command # stat -f -c %T ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

mount directory cannot be seen from within apps

I have successfully mounted a local network location on my Android device to /sdcard/routersd with permission set drwxrwxrwx; I can successfully browse within this mounted directory and do copy/delete ...
4
votes
1answer
5k views

Mounting a multi-partition (GPT/HFS+) USB 2.0 harddrive on Debian

I have a 3TB USB 2.0 hard-drive which has two HFS+ (Mac) partitions using GUID partition table for the partition records. It was partitioned with Mac OS Disk Utility. How can I mount these partitions ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Is an inode number a non-changeable id of an inode?

I am trying to understand the concept of the inode number of an inode. Is an inode number an/the id of an inode? Does an inode have exactly one inode number? or can an inode have zero or more than ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

udev creates the right rules, but rights disappear as soon as I try to access files via C++

I'm facing a really strange problem using udev. As I already explained here I'm trying to access some folders/files as a no root user Here are my udev rules for the gpio folder: KERNEL=="gpio*", ...
2
votes
2answers
705 views

ext4 corruption found in superblock, but filesystem can be mounted

After a crash, I've got an Ext4 filesystem (on an LVM LV) that gives the following error when running fsck.ext4 -nf: e2fsck 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014) Corruption found in superblock. (blocks_count = 0). ...
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0answers
22 views

What is the purpose of nodev? [duplicate]

I'm talking about the mount option. What is it used for? What is the purpose behind preventing device nodes from being created in a filesystem?
2
votes
5answers
6k views

What is the /dev/disk/by-uuid/ and why does it use all free space on the disk

I have the following Debian that works in Virtual Box: $ uname -a Linux debian 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.51-1 x86_64 GNU/Linux Recently I notice that I don't have any free space: $ df ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Speed up backup in case where a partition has lots of free space

I'm trying to make a backup of a block device (Raspberry Pi sd card) using dd. Command used: sudo dd if=/dev/sdb of=rpi-backup-image bs=4MB where /dev/sdb is the unmounted RPi sd card. The amount ...
2
votes
1answer
832 views

How can I get write access to my usb drives?

I have trouble writing to external drives. They are monuted automatically in Nautilus, but I can not copy anything there ('Paste' and 'create Folder' are just greyed out). Does Anyone have ideas what ...
29
votes
5answers
44k views

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

I had a problem (new to me) last week. I have a ext4 (Fedora 15) filesystem. The application that runs on the server suddenly stopped. I couldn't find the problem at first look. df showed 50% ...
4
votes
2answers
346 views

Is there an inode for a directory?

Each file has an inode. Is there an inode for every directory ? If not, how does Linux manage directories.
2
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0answers
26 views

Linux file creation time. What are the requirement challenges in considering useful atribute? [closed]

I find many users are acquiescent to the fact that many linux/unix variants do not support/store the file creation time. Yet, I feel it has some relevance in operations and audit & trail. I see ...