A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Granular control of rwx permissions on NTFS partition

I am running a Ubuntu-Windows dual boot setup, and I have a third NTFS partition for my shared data (documents, music, downloads, etc). I currently mount the partition using /etc/fstab like so: ...
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29 views

Live Linux and FAT32

I'm looking for a Linux distribution that will run (uncompressed) on a FAT16/32/NTFS partition, preferably on an external USB drive. I've come across Slax and Porteus as well as a few others but they ...
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1answer
26 views

How to take snapshot of an ext4 filesystem

Is there any way we can take a snapshot of an ext4 filesystem so that we can revert back to it later?
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30 views

Should I use hardlinks for my “sites-enabled” folder instead of softlinks?

Every article I find about web servers suggest creating a sites-available and sites-enabled directory within apache/nginx/etc. Then, using symbolic (soft) links, create a link from the available to ...
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1answer
13 views

How to use tune2fs?

I want to adjust the time interval between ext2, ext3 and ext4 filesystem checks to 180 days? I know that I have to use tune2fs -i 180 but I am not sure about the arguments
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12 views

3 TB ext4 partition performance issue

I have deployed Centos 6.6 VM based on vSphere ESXi 5.5, it consists of 2 VMDK (virtual disks): 1st vmdk is for System / with 25 GB second vmdk /var is a 3TB / ext4 underlying storage is RAID 5 ...
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37 views

Reason for change in ctime when the file content is modified

I understand that ctime changes when the file metadata or the file content is changed and mtime on file content modification. I would like to know the reason for updating ctime when the content of ...
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1answer
35 views

Problem mounting disk

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l Disk /dev/xvdb: 2147.5 GB, 2147483648000 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 261083 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size ...
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1answer
29 views

remounting FS with read write rights

Looking for the read only file system: grep "\sro[\s,]" /proc/mounts /dev/disk/by-uuid/2c04d594-b11d-4b02-b1b3-3d9f0b66b73c / ext3 ro,relatime,errors=remount-ro,barrier=1,data=ordered 0 0 So the / ...
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Why is my raid5 always resyncing ? (device names no persistent?)

I have a Intel RST software raid on ubuntu 14.04 with mdadm: (4 x 6TB drives in Raid 5, created with device names /dev sudo mdadm -C /dev/md/imsm /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdh /dev/sdi -n 4 -e imsm sudo ...
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Disk i/o latency using /proc/vmstat file

How do i calculate Disk read and write latency in Linux? Is it possible to do the calculation using /proc file system? I am used iostat and vmstat command. But i do not understand how the ...
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6 views

Only move folders not existing in target directory

I am looking for a way to move folders that are not already present in the target directory on my linux server. Example: Target directory folder1 folder2 folder3 folder4 Source directory folder1 ...
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How to safely turn off swap permanently? (on Debian Jessie)

I fresh installed Debian Jessie with default partitioning on an SSD drive. My current disk partitions look like this: As I have 16GB RAM, I think I don't need swap. On Windows, I had it turned off ...
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df and du differences too large [duplicate]

-bash-3.2$ df -h | grep /mnt/opt /mnt/opt 197G **163G** 32G 84% /mnt/opt -bash-3.2$ du -sh /mnt/opt **74G** /mnt/opt More then 1/2 the differences between df and du. ...
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19 views

OverlayFS - How to make changes to upper filesystem persistent without unmounting?

I am using an USB drive to start a linux system which needs changes from time to time and also writes some logs. Flash drives tend to fail early if there are many write operations. That brought me to ...
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1answer
24 views

Content Explanation Of: /proc/fs/ext4/device_name/mb_groups

I've been wondering, what are the explanation of the columns in the /proc/fs/ext4/device_name/mb_groups file. The columns are: #group: free frags first [ 2^0 2^1 2^2 2^3 2^4 2^5 2^6 2^7 2^8 2^9 2^10 ...
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24 views

why does my Ubuntu Virtual Machine slow down after a number of searches, and builds?

I recently learned that my Ubuntu Linux file system may cache the result of some commands such as searches, sorts, and perhaps build commands such as make. I run Ubuntu in a VM, and although I have ...
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1answer
26 views

System call 'open' mode not working

I am writing a simple code about opening a file with O_CREAT | O_WDONLY | O_EXCL flags. The code looks like this: int fd = open(fileName, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0777); It works well, except ...
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40 views

What do “extents” feature do in ext4 filesystem in linux?

I was reading about the ext4 filesystem that it supports compression, encryption and a feature called extents which is used to save disk space. What are extents and how are they are effective for ...
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1answer
23 views

Does udev (/udev) consume storage?

Let's say I install a single partition (root) of linux that's 20GB. When I run 'df' it shows me the root drive that's 20GB, udev, and several tmpfs info. I believe tmpfs is just temporary and from ...
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39 views

EXT filesystem family: Why does the first superblock start at offset 1024?

I was brushing up and diving deeper into filesystem anatomy and in numerous resources it is said to be a requirement that the very first superblock start at an offset of 1024 bytes. I started looking ...
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25 views

How to install applications temporary into RAM on LiveCD?

So I have a Scientific Linux LiveDVD. And I have it installed on a PC that has no hard drives configured and avaliable at all. I want to install some applications that would allow me to configure ...
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17 views

How do I pass options to forcefsck?

I am trying to run a one time disk check at bootup by using /forcefsck but I would like to pass some of the FSCK options such as y, c, f, and v. I have tried inserting these in the file but I seems to ...
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12 views

Debian 8.1 Automatic Mounting Issues

I'm having some issues mounting a partition in Debian 8.1. I have my system set up to mount /home/caleb/Downloads on a separate partition (on a different drive than /). The drive is /dev/sdc3 and ...
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16 views

How to extend partition to all unallocated space in a VPS?

Hello and sorry for the dumb question but I'm a bit new to Linux and I'm always very scared to mess with partitions. Anyway, here it goes my story: I rent a VPS that uses a SSD of 10GB (Debian 7) and ...
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25 views

Making aufs union mounts read-write

So I've got two systems, lucyvanpelt and schroeder. lucyvanpelt's /home is exported read-write to schroeder via NFS. Its location on schroeder is /mnt/home/lucyvanpelt I want to union-mount it with ...
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34 views

How to install a system on top of ZFS?

I have a clear system with 5 hard drives, bios. No OS installed, no formatting applied to hard drives. I want to install a Scientific linux (6.6 or higher) OS on top of ZFS on it. What are the ...
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9 views

Verify file permissions [btrfs]

I did a fresh installation of OpenSUSE and copied all my files from the old home directory. The user and group names hadn't changed, and all the files seem to have proper permissions. However, I ran ...
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592 views

Why is df missing 500MB of available space?

I've just had a message today from Ubuntu 11.04 that I have only 100 MB left, so I cleaned up some files, and I got 200 MB. Then, after a couple of hours, suddenly I have only 26 MB?! I tried df, du ...
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32 views

Samba Error NT_STATUS_HOST_UNREACHABLE on any other node yet not on host

host IP config: # netstat -nat | grep LISTEN tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:445 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:3306 0.0.0.0:* ...
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23 views

How to share a file over “Windows Share” protocol from scientific linux?

I have a file on my linux. I want to share it via "Windows Share" (IPMI can understand only one way of remote large files mounting). How to share my file over "Windows Share" from my scientific linux? ...
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35 views

Disk usage in stat output and inode

Below is my stat output: [alankoh@SJOAM swap]$ stat myswapfile File: `myswapfile' Size: 2147483648 Blocks: 4194312 IO Block: 4096 regular file Device: fd03h/64771d Inode: 1179650 ...
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1answer
63 views

Force reconnect on sshfs drive mounted via fstab

I have a remote sshfs drive that I use on a daily basis. I previously executed the following command every time I booted up my computer. sshfs -o Ciphers=arcfour -o Compression=no -o reconnect ...
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49 views

EXT4 requiring twice as much storage space - Ubuntu / Beets

I have a question I'm struggling to research an answer for. I have am building a Ubuntu media server at home and decided to carve up my 2TB bulk storage disk into various partitions. I created a ...
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103 views

Bulk remove a large directory on a ZFS without traversing it recursively

I want to remove a directory that has large amounts of data on it. This is my backup array, which is a ZFS filesystem, linear span, single pool. The data is in this pool called san, mounted on /san ...
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1answer
25 views

Copying files from a VFAT32 formatted disk into Linux

I was curios to know what happens when I copy files from a VFAT32 formatted disk ( formatted under Windows system ) into the Linux system. Does the files which are copied in the linux system ...
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1answer
58 views

How to turn default Scientific Linux on top of some file system into linux on top of zfs?

So I have a cluster with an array of hard drives (say 6), currently they are not in any RAID, on top of one of them I currently have my Scientific Linux installed and running. How to migrate it onto ...
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2answers
51 views

warning: Filesystem seems to be mounted read-only

I have an old SGI indigo with an EFS file system (Extent File System ), and the password needs to be reset. I can mount the hard drive, but read-only. I need write permissions. # mount --rw -t efs ...
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57 views

Unix equivalent of smart folders

What I want to do is present a directory, the contents of which are sourced from a series of other directories on the file system. It would be like a soft-link, only a link to multiple directories at ...
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28 views

ecryptfs error leads to unknown filesystem on grub rescue

I have a Lenovo Thinkpad with a dual boot for Ubuntu and Windows 7. While in Ubuntu I closed the lid to the computer (which doesn't put Ubuntu to sleep) and went out to run some errands. I come back ...
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18 views

System claims my USB is mounted when I insert it and I cannot (un)mount it. How do I fix this?

I'm running Ubuntu 14.10 Server (headless). I have a group of USB flashdrives that I need to reformat for use across several devices. I've successfully mounted, formatted, copied files to, and ...
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1answer
60 views

pendrivelinux install on usb stick - only uses 5.8GB of a 14.7GB usb stick

I used http://www.pendrivelinux.com to build an installation of Linux Mint on a USB stick, so I could have a portable OS (mainly for work emergencies). It's installed, and works fine, but it's only ...
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1answer
23 views

Does Gparted change permissions?

Sometimes but not often, but many times, after formatting an SD card with Gparted, the SD card becomes unaccessible to normal user, so I go as root and change the permissions, happens especially when ...
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How to make an existing directory (and sub-directories) to be suddenly writable by ROOT ONLY?

Let's say i have a directory, at: /tmp/uploads/ And inside got several recursive directories and files created by DIFFERENT USERS before. So now, suddenly how do i make that above directory to be ...
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50 views

How to make a NON-WRITABLE directory?

Actually i'm aware of a "PHP Web Folder". There seems to be some potentials of incoming attacks. So that i want to make sure this whole directory is READ-ONLY (Only writable by ROOT). Let's say the ...
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129 views

Undeletable directory

Everything I've tried (always with superuser privileges) has failed: # rm -rf /path/to/undeletable rm: cannot remove ‘/path/to/undeletable’: Is a directory # rmdir /path/to/undeletable rmdir: failed ...
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1answer
30 views

Cache atime writes

Is there a way to set atime writes to be cached for a very long time? I need atime (that is to say, relatime won't cut it), but I don't want it to effect performance so much. Data loss in of atimes ...
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30 views

Mount a disk over another disk

I have a Drupal website on a VM (RHEL 7) and it works on an SSD storage both public and private directories: /storage/drupalpublic and /storage/drupalprivate. Now and in the future, I need to store a ...
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28 views

Recovering files with directory structure

EDIT: I am using Debian 8.1.0 So I somehow deleted my /etc directory. While I have not been able to recover the complete /etc directory hierarchy with all files, I have received different parts from ...
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94 views

ext3 vs ext4 - same disk size, less usable disk space under ext4 comparing to ext3. why?

Files copied from ext3 filesystem do not fit on same size ext4 filesystem. How to reproduce: create two 1GB files, setup loop device for each, create filesystem one ext3, one ext4, mount, rsync ...