A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Creating separate volume for /var/log/ and /var/log/audit/

I need to migrate /var/log/ and /var/log/audit to separate partitions. Currently the entire /var/ directory is on a logical volume with ample space (45G). I understand how to shrink and create new ...
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How much space does an inode occupy?

In Windows, when a file/folder is created, it is associated with an FRN (a unique number which is like an Index into the MFT). All the file metadata is stored in the MFT which occupies a reserved size ...
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Returning last-written file, containing particular sub-string in file name?

Whilst monitoring logging I have to go to my log files, order by written date, so I can then see the name of the log file for the most-recent execution of my application. Is there any way, given a ...
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BTRFS - removing drive by devid instead of path

I recently lost a 5 TB drive using btrfs. I had a system freeze (unsure why) while a balance was running. My SMR drive got corrupted. I was able to mount my array degraded and balance my data. ...
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38 views

Unknown filesystem type 'LVM2_member' [closed]

I use to have 2 x 500GB drives merged using LVM as one drive. One of the drives is managed and removed from the server and the LVM is corrupted I tried to mount the second HDD but it's not working ...
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Where am I supposed to put PyCharm files?

I've just downloaded PyCharm (pro) for Linux (I'm running Ubuntu). It's basically a zipped directory containing everything it needs to run (tree below), including an entry point (bin/pycharm.sh). ...
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Mount LVM volume as external usb drive? CentOS 6

I'm trying to mount my old 2x500GB drives to the new server which has the same drive volume. Both have LVM structure but it's not working. root@server [/mnt/usb]# ls /dev/sd* /dev/sda /dev/sda2 ...
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do I need fsck.ext4 before mounting a filesystem?

I have a script that mounts /dev/sdc1 to /home. I do not know the state of /dev/sdc1 in advance, it could possibly be "dirty". Do I need to run fsck.ext4 before mounting the filesystem, or has mount ...
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Help about CentOS 7 apps & Driver [closed]

I'm using pc for several years but never tried Linux so I'm quite noob in this field. I'm using Autodesk maya, Nuke & will learn houdini very soon. I found that linux works faster for this apps so ...
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22 views

'Docker' File System - Compatibility with Symbolic Links

The question is marked in bold if you wish to skip the explanation of our situation. I work as a developer for a server network. We deploy multiple instances of our servers. we have 5 types of server ...
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33 views

ls - why is parent directory smaller than its contents? How to see the size of directory's contents? [duplicate]

So... ls -l --block-size=MB tells me that directory is one MB ls -l --block-size=MB directory tells me there's a 3MB file inside the directory. Shouldn't that make the directory at least 3MB? ...
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directory structure vs file system

What is the difference between directory structure and file system? Unix/Linux directories and file system looks as follows: The following two directories obviously we know directories. ...
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445 views

Why are these files in an ext4 volume fragmented?

I have a 900GB ext4 partition on a (magnetic) hard drive that has no defects and no bad sectors. The partition is completely empty except for an empty lost+found directory. The partition was formatted ...
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Why is proc called a file system?

The proc file system allows the kernel to communicate information about each running process on a Linux system. Why is proc called a file system? It’s not a real file system like ext4. It’s just a ...
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NTFS-3G: All files are an “unsupported reparse point”

I just connected my NTFS HDD to my homeserver and I have an odd problem. EVERY file on the HDD is displayed as an "unsupported reparse point" in ls -lsa I tried mounting with different permissions ...
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17 views

fsync on newly created folder? [migrated]

Can anyone explain why fsync can return EINVAL when I pass folder descriptor in it? There is my code, it is pretty simple: #include <dirent.h> /* Defines DT_* constants */ #include ...
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489 views

`ls` error when directory is deleted

I have two shells open. The first is in directory A. In the second, I remove directory A, and then recreate it. When I go back to the first shell, and type ls, the output is: ls: cannot open ...
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Modifying the EXT2 Filesystem [migrated]

For a project I'm working on, I need to be able to modify the EXT2 filesystem. I have done extensive research, but as this is not a commonly required task, there seems to be very little helpful ...
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ext4 file system tuning for storage partition

I searched the Internet, but I was not able to find a satisfying answer to my problem. The Problem I'm encountering currently is, that I'm transitioning my data from a NTFS Partition to a ext4 ...
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1answer
59 views

“ls -l” shows some abnormal files with “?”

Recently I ran into a problem with FTP server access. The server system logs shows that /etc/wu-ftpd/ftpaccess file is missing, as below: wu-ftpd[15695]: cannot open access file ...
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3answers
518 views

How does Unix implement file permissions?

I have a text file named foo.txt with root permission in one Linux distribution. I copied it to another Linux distribution on another computer. Would file permissions be still maintained for ...
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Mapping a physical sector to a filename

I just finished using ddrescue to recover the contents of a failing hard drive. It was able to recover everything but two sectors. How do I figure out which files (if any) occupied those sectors? ...
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How many inodes do I need to access to read a file?

Imagine I want to access the blocks of file /hello/file. How many inodes should I walt through? I guess two, since I should not go through the root inode, right?
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Repeated Ext4-fs error with comm psad: invalid block. Does it mean the SSD is dying?

Configuration : Debian Jessie with SSD. /dev/sda1 is root filesystem, /dev/sda6 is home filesystem. Errors occurs only on /dev/sda1. For the third time, I've got software errors because the root ...
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Can the filesystem become inconsistent if interrupted when moving a file?

I have two folders on the same partition (EXT2) If I mv folder1/file folder2 and some interruption occur (e.g. power failure) could the file system ever end up being inconsistent? Isn't the mv ...
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how to remove root clone folder

I am not entirely sure what i have done to be honest, but i believe i have mounted a folder to a / directory. So no when i am in / folder i have : bin etc lib media proc ...
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Filesytem errors during boot

I am using OMAPL138 and kernel version 2.6.37 and I would like to improve the boot time of my system. I made some progress on this, but I still have some errors which may be causing delay in the boot ...
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28 views

How do file permissions work with partition filesystem?

If I store a file in ext2, ext3, or ext4 formatted partition, it's permission is saved. I mean, I can have different permissions for different files in extX partition. However, If I store a file in ...
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10 views

Not detecting hfs+ partition on second drive

I'm having a problem, I want to backup some files to my second drive before reinstalling, but I can't mount it. The filesystem is contained in /dev/sdb10, according to GParted, but that doesn't exist ...
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1answer
135 views

rm -rf: cannot remove `/opt/jetty': Directory not empty

I have a script using the following command to remove a folder: ssh -q root@hostname sh -c 'rm -rf /opt/jetty/' Most of the times it works fine, but occasionally I get this message: rm: cannot ...
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2answers
29 views

Precaching the list of files of the filesystem

I was wondering where and in what form a list of files and directories is stored on the ext4 filesystem. The problem is that whenever I try to access a certain directory for the first time since boot ...
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1answer
42 views

How can I (easily) map a block device node to the directory it's mounted on?

I need to find (in C or C++) the used space on a filesystem (Linux) when being provided only with the disk block device name and the partition number. For most filesystems I can go: Craft a dev ...
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Backup Files on ext4 to external NTFS drive

Would there be any problems in copying files on my Linux system with ext4 filesystem to an external drive that is formatted in NTFS? I'm reinstalling my OS and intend to copy these files back to my ...
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Converting ext2 to ext4

I have a file-server with three disk's that are ext2 file-systems, is it possible to change/convert these to ext4 which have much improved characteristics, while data is on the disk's and without ...
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28 views

Can we delete or reduce allocated space to mounted filesystem?

Can we delete or reduce allocated space on an already mounted filesystem? I have already mounted or allocated 4 Gb space for a particular filesystem, but I need to reduce the allocated space to 1 GB. ...
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35 views

Trying to setup a 2 way file sync in Linux

I am trying to setup a 2 way file sync in linux of reasonably small data-set. I would like to replicate data over WAN so distributed filesystems like gluster are not in point of my interest - they are ...
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32 views

Kernel problem after editing filesystem.squashfs

I use Kali Live linux (which is based on Debian), today I tried to edit filesystem.squashfs file which is located at /live/filesystem.squashfs using squashfs-tools. First I extracted this file using ...
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Can a linux filesystem be backed up by copying the file structure tree only?

This might be considered to be more of an academic question but here goes. Returning to Linux after some years away, I installed Ubuntu 15.04 Desktop on a small PC. Looking around the file system ...
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1answer
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Relationship between IO scheduler and cpu/process scheduler?

The concepts of IO scheduler and CPU scheduler confuse me. Below are my understanding: Linux uses CFS scheduler + nice values by default to schedule processes. Each process has an IO queue. There ...
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4answers
255 views

Prevent file corruption

I have an application that write files into a specific directory at the FS. This system, under no circumstances, can lose a single written file. When I have some problem at the HD, like badblocks or ...
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1answer
33 views

External command to force ofstream to flush

I have a C++ ofstream that, for performance reasons, I don't flush from inside the code. However, occasionally I need to inspect the file contents. Is there a Linux command that will force the ...
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Why is there a file called [ in my /usr/bin directory? [duplicate]

Recently back to Linux from another operating system I noticed a file called [ which seems strange to me. What is it for? $ ls -l /usr/bin | head -2 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 39552 Nov 3 14:44 [ ...
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Why does '/' have the inode 2?

On many *nix systems like OS X and Ubuntu, We can see the inode of root directory is 2. Then what is the inode 1 used for?
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Can't find the location of DUMPed file system

I dumped a file system, chose the name for the dump ("home_fs_dump"), the dump was declared successfull, and yet I couldn't locate this name anywhere in the system. (And at the end I tested if locate ...
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1answer
143 views

What is a bind mount?

What is a “bind mount”? How do I make one? What is it good for? I've been told to use a bind mount for something, but I don't understand what it is or how to use it.
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1answer
119 views

Mount linux mount in windows (without ftp)?

I successfully mounted my external hard drive (ntfs) to /mnt/seagate. I'm using debian and the server is connected over LAN to my PC. So how can I mount my hard drive in my windows explorer without ...
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How to mount a filesystem by 2 operating systems simultaneously?

I was wondering, is it possible to have my Raspberry Pi mount the SD that is also mounted by an digital camera? I have a scenario where I take pictures relatively fast (Raspberry Pi triggers the ...
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Difference between fsarchiver and dump

What is the difference between dump and fsarchiver? Are there features in dump which are not covered by fsarchiver? Can both backup to tape storage for example?
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324 views

How do case-insensitive filesystems display both upper and lower case file names?

This question occurred to me the other day when I was working on a development project that relies on an opinionated framework with regard to file names. The framework (irrelevant here) wanted to see ...
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148 views

“mount: wrong fs type..” error when mounting USB

I'm stuck trying to mount a USB drive on a Raspberry Pi (Wheezy). I've reformatted it (ext4) and tried re-mounting it in /media/owncloud (following sudo chown -R pi:pi /media/owncloud), but hit an ...