Questions about disk drives under the UNIX and Linux systems. See also the "filesystems" tag.

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2answers
1k views

Disk on key is read only on every computer

I have a 16 GB SanDisk Cruzer Blade Disk-on-key. After a few days of use, it has become write-protected/read-only. When I plug it in, you can see this in my Ubuntu's dmesg: [ 819.003359] usb 2-5: ...
15
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8answers
11k views

How to determine which sd* is usb? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to know if /dev/sdX is a connected USB or HDD? The output of ls /dev/sd* on my system is - sda sda1 sda2 sda3 sda4 sda5 sda6 sda7 sdb sdc sdc1 sdc2 ...
1
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3answers
424 views

/dev/disk/by-uuid/ not working on one machine

I have a iSCSI disk which I am mounting from several machines (exclusively, not concurrently). On machine A, I start iscsi service open-iscsi start and the iscsi disk is discovered as /dev/sdb1. ...
0
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2answers
341 views

How to get total disk read/write in bytes per hdd device from /proc

How to get total disk read/write in bytes per hdd device? for example if i have sda, sdb, and sdc, is there any file on /proc that i could use similar to /proc/net/dev for networking?
-1
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1answer
53 views

What is a file? [closed]

I thought that the file is a reserved place on disk and it is a Record collection but i found that it is a wrong definition because the empty file capacity is 0kb so it can't be a reserved place on ...
3
votes
0answers
246 views

Unable to close a Luks partition

For backup purposes, I have "snapshotted" a LVM partition. This partition was crypted so I have opened this Luks partition (snapshot) in order to do my backup. The problem is that I have forgotten to ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

How to get total number of bytes/sectors/blocks written to disk since booting?

I'm considering and update from HDD to SSD. But since Flash cells can only sustain limited writes. I want to know how much data my computer write during normal operation. So I can determine how long ...
4
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1answer
626 views

Edit file on image created with dd [duplicate]

I've a bootable USB with Debian. Normally I clone the disk with dd, write the image on a new USB disk, mount this disk on my filesystem and edit some files. Is it possible to edit files on the image ...
0
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1answer
63 views

Why I got a strange result for fdisk -l

root@host [~]# fdisk -l Disk /dev/sdc: 128.0 GB, 128035676160 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15566 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 ...
2
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4answers
2k views

What is the /dev/disk/by-uuid/ and why does it use all free space on the disk

I have the following Debian that works in Virtual Box: $ uname -a Linux debian 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.51-1 x86_64 GNU/Linux Recently I notice that I don't have any free space: $ df ...
5
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2answers
573 views

How to create a fixed size Linux ramdisk which does never swap to disk?

I want to create a fixed size Linux ramdisk which never swaps to disk. Note that my question is not "why" I want to do this (let say, for example, that it's for an educative purpose or for research): ...
0
votes
1answer
169 views

Is there something wrong with df output? [duplicate]

I'm using the command df -h to check disk usage on CentOS 6.4. I see an inconsistency with the output. look at the line Filesystem: total 490Gb, used 55Gb, and Available 411Gb. What is it mean? I ...
4
votes
1answer
10k views

/dev/sdb: No such file or directory (but /dev/sdb1 etc. exist)

I'm not sure what is wrong here but when running fdisk -l I don't get an output, and when running fdisk /dev/sdb # I get this fdisk: unable to open /dev/sdb: No such file or directory I'm ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Mounting another VM's .vdi in VirtualBox

I have two VMs in VirtualBox. For exmaple, VM 1 runs Red Hat, and VM 2 runs Ubuntu. For the Red Hat VM I have redhat.vdi and redhat2.vdi, and for the Ubuntu VM I have ubuntu.vdi and unbuntu2.vdi. ...
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Uniquely identifying a drive (not a partition)

I'm writing some automation scripts for full disk backups and I'd like to be fairly precise with which devices are used. I know that one can uniquely identify a partition using UUIDs and blkid, but ...
2
votes
2answers
467 views

How do I navigate to a CD drive?

I'm trying to install Virtualbox Guest Additions in Elementary OS. cd doesn't seem to work with cd VBOXADDITIONS_4.2.6_82870. Update: I did what @ivica recommended, and here's what I'm getting: I ...
0
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1answer
67 views

How to create memory-based disk in linux? [duplicate]

I need to have a very fast disk for keeping cache. How can I do that in Linux?
2
votes
1answer
339 views

Difference between “blockdev --flushbufs” and “sync” on Linux?

Is there a difference in practice between running blockdev --flushbufs and sync(1) on Linux? (apart from blockdev flushing for a specific device, and sync being system-wide). sync(1) manpage says it ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Free space: 0 bytes and files full of data shown as empty

I don't know what's going on. The last evening I left my computer with about 700MB of free space on the system partition and today there is no free space on disk, moreover a lot of files containing ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Repartion multiple disks and reallocate storage

I’m trying to re-partition from an Arch Linux install disc. I’m doing so because my current OS is corrupted. When running fdisk –l this is what it looks like: /dev/sda1 * start=2048 end=1026047 ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How to Add Extra Disks on KVM based VM

I installed Redhat 6.4 on KVM Server. Right Now there is only One Disk /dev/vda. Now I need to add extra Disk like /dev/vdb I tried adding New Volume but it is not showing when I do fdisk -l How to ...
1
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0answers
178 views

How different is I/O handling of hard disk in AIX and Redhat Linux?

I am running a hadoop I/O workload in redhat linux and have ran that in IBM AIX as well with same underlying hardware, disk and disk configuration. With the default settings on the os redhat linux is ...
1
vote
3answers
117 views

Bad sector on a directory

I've a bad sector on my /home/xyz which make a folder with 10 GB data unreadable. As far as I can see in syslog there's only one badsector with may destruct 4K of data while I have no access to 10 GB ...
1
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1answer
978 views

How to measure total disk I/O per hour

I have a cloud server were we get billed also for disk IO usage. Here is an example from the stats: 04/Sep/2013 07:24:19 04/Sep/2013 08:24:19 0,5 GB / 1 vCPU (0,08 Kr. per hour): Charge for ...
22
votes
3answers
17k views

How can I safely remove a SATA disk from a running system?

I sometimes need to plug a disk into a disk bay. At other times, I have the very weird setup of connecting a SSD using a SATA-eSATA cable on my laptop while pulling power from a desktop. How can I ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

How to detect if a disk is seeking?

I can use a variety of tools to measure the volume of disk I/O currently flowing through the system (such as iotop and iostat) but I'm curious if it's possible to easily detect if a disk is seeking a ...
6
votes
4answers
358 views

Are short-lived files flushed to disk?

My program creates many small short-lived files. They are typically deleted within a second after creation. The files are in an ext4 file system backed by a real hard disk. I know that Linux ...
1
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1answer
90 views

Strange problem with IO or file system or what?

On a SLES 11 SP2 32-bit system I'm seeing a strange problem. It's as if the OS can not open a file from the beginning of the file. Say I have a file that is 200 lines. If I cat or more or vi the ...
1
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2answers
291 views

Setting up a RAID 1 in Funtoo [closed]

In short Following the guide How to Set Up a RAID 1 Under GNU/Linux, I have setup a RAID 1. Checking the RAID Array for validity in various ways, appeared to be normal. However, after rebooting the ...
1
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2answers
78 views

Create my own disk server

I have been wondering how all these small nas boxes that run linux can share over network and usb. The network part is totally under control, but I am completely at a loss on how I could hook up a ...
3
votes
2answers
897 views

What could cause a NAS mount to respond slowly?

I've a directory on a NAS mount (from NetApp), that contains ~6300 image files, total size of this directory is ~ 300 MB. I get two different performances of time ls: First time (or after waiting 5-7 ...
1
vote
1answer
460 views

Changing drives in FTP

I am using RHEL6 and I connect to FileZilla FTP Server in Windows 2008 Server which has more than 10 drives. I have access to all of them but for my user C:\ is Home Directory. I want to change to ...
5
votes
2answers
520 views

How do I refresh the magnetic state on a disks with backups?

I have a couple of large disks with backup/archive material on them. They're ext4. Regarding the ones of those that will be stored for a couple of years without reading the whole disc again I've been ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What's the easiest way to decrypt a disk partition?

I made a mistake of encrypting the entire LVM physical volume (contains both home, root, and swap) when installing a CentOS 6.4 (2.6.32-358.6.1.el6.x86_64) box. I soon came to realize that moving ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Redundant array of NTFS disks

I have a number of NTFS disks with unused capacity. They are leftover external hard drives with a Windows history. I have a very limited number of USB ports on my machine, and want to find a cheap way ...
1
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1answer
399 views

How to realign a disk on logical volume with minimum to zero down time

A system running un-align disk partition that needs to be aligned without loss of data on all the partition including mbr with the minimum to no down time.
0
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1answer
164 views

Disk Partitioning - Can't create partition

I've been following this example to restore capacity to my microSD --> SD card corrupt and stuck at 32MB, any way to fix it? Everything seems to work until I get to mkfs /dev/sdx1 It tells me ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

How to use DD to clone a partition off a disk image?

I have a disk image, it's a "whole" disk image, e.g., contains multiple partitions, and I want to clone just one of them (not the first one..) onto a partition on an external drive with multiple ...
2
votes
0answers
144 views

Block Devices & Partitions

I partitioned a microSD card (mmcblk1) into two partitions mmcblk1p1 and mmcblk1p2. If use a dedicated card reader I am able to see the entire SD card and its partitions using various disk management ...
2
votes
1answer
183 views

Keeping disk caches when hibernating

Is there a way to keep disk caches when hibernating Linux? I understand and agree that dropping them is the best option all-around. But my system is unresponsive after resume and I would like to give ...
13
votes
3answers
751 views

Horrible situation - file systems mounted simultaneously by multiple independent OS instances

How do I get out of this situation safely? Details are as follow: A xen server has got block devices allocated to VMs. But these devices have also been mounted inside Xen. In fact 44 of these ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Reasons for choosing primary over logical partitions [duplicate]

I guess anyone knows the benefits of logical volumes. But are there any reasons why I should choose primary partitions if I can?
5
votes
2answers
4k views

Linux Mint freezes on startup

Premise I am running Linux Mint on my sister's computer. Everything was working fine, but than one day she turned it on and she got a strange message she didn't understand. I think it was some kind ...
1
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1answer
94 views

Really umount external drive

I had a USB drive mounted on /dev/sdb1 and I want to reformat from NTFS to ext3. I did umount -l which unmounted the disk. I deleted the old partition using cfdisk. I ran mkfs.ext3, but got the error: ...
2
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3answers
5k views

Can I create a software RAID 1 with one device

I have a single disk that I want to create a Mirror of, Lets call this disk sda I have just bought another identicle size disk, which we can call sdb. sda and sdb have one partition called sda1 and ...
1
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0answers
1k views

How to set up ZFS with ZIL and L2ARC SSD?

I have been considering bcache and flashcache. However my friend suggested me something called ZFS. In fact it says that formating disk with ZFS can actually do the exact same thing without kernel ...
2
votes
2answers
138 views

Why I have two /dev/sdx entries with a single disk?

In my laptop (running Linux) I have only one SSD, connected to the SATA3 port. Why I have two sdx entries in /dev directory? In particular I see /dev/sda and /dev/sdb, and /dev/sda is the SSD: # ...
2
votes
2answers
792 views

RHEL 5.5 - Need to refresh /dev/disk/by-label links

I've added a fibrechannel disk to a RHEL 5.5 server. The disk is present and shows under /dev/sdxx - But I need to give udev a kick and have it refresh the /dev/disk/by-label/LABEL links; this is ...
4
votes
2answers
168 views

Determine which process is taking most of disk bandwidth?

When the HDD indicator is blinking (for a long period), how could I know which process is taking most disk bandwidth?
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Resize non-LVM ext4 root partition

How can I shrink/resize a non-LVM ext4 root partition? The problem is I can't unmount it and I don't have physical access.