The layout of the directory hierarchy — questions like “where does this file belong?” or “what is this directory for?”.

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How shareable is /var/cache?

I know that some subdirectories of /var/cache are pretty much shareable, for example /var/cache/pacman (in case of ArchLinux), and possibly others (/var/cache/man?), but at least /var/cache/ldconfig ...
27
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8answers
27k views

What is /usr/local/bin? Came across it in an script installation for Applescript but would like to know more

Before today, I've used Terminal to a limited extent of moving in and out of directories, changing the dates of files using the touch command, but had realised the full extent of Terminal after ...
5
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2answers
376 views

What is this folder /run/user/1000?

What is this folder: /run/user/1000 on my Fedora system and what does it do? ~ $ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on tmpfs 1.2G 20K 1.2G 1% /run/user/1000
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0answers
44 views

How do folder name localizations work?

In Mac OS X, there are directories like Desktop, Users and Library. On localized systems, these would be named Skrivbord, Användare and Bibliotek (Swedish) But when I am in the terminal I can't ...
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3answers
5k views

Should I put application into /usr/local or /usr/local/share?

What are the "standards" -- should I put application (not just binary, but entire distribution) to /usr/local or /usr/local/share. For example scala or weka -- it contains examples, binaries, ...
2
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4answers
153 views

How to recreate /var/lib/dpkg/status?

I have deleted some files around /var/lib/dpkg/, namely: /var/lib/dpkg/status /var/lib/dpkg/available /var/lib/dpkg/info/* I understand Debian uses these files to keep some information about ...
52
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3answers
2k views

Why does '/' have an '..' entry?

This just baffles me. Why does the root directory contain a reference to a parent directory? bob@bob:/$ ls -a . build home lib32 mnt .rpmdb sys vmlinuz .. cdrom ...
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8answers
17k views

Why is the root directory on a web server put by default in “/var/www”?

Tuxfiles says the following about the Linux directory structure: /var: This directory contains variable data that changes constantly when the system is running. FHS on /var says the ...
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2answers
421 views

What is an appropriate naming structure for storing application packages?

I need to determine an appropriate directory naming structure for a package management system. The original directory structure was not POSIX-compliant in any way and certainly not UNIX-style (you'll ...
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0answers
26 views

Custom desktop launcher search path in Ubuntu

I know I can write a .desktop file in /usr/share/applications or ~/.local/share/applications, but can I add new folders to the search path similar to the $PATH environment variable? For example, I ...
27
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1answer
1k views

Why aren't crontabs stored in user home directories?

I'm curious to know: why are crontabs stored in /var rather than in the user's home directories? It makes it a total pain to isolate these files for upgrades but I suspect that there is a logical ...
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2answers
50 views

With “find /”, skip directories like “/proc”, “/sys” and similar

There are some directories that can cause problem with find, and especially find /. These are directories in which the OS creates files which are not really files. Among these directories are /proc ...
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2answers
36 views

Where should I mount a disk to store backups?

I'm new to Unix, and wanted to give it a try. I had an old PC lying around and decided to turn it into a network based backup system to keep the data in the other PCs safe. So I installed FreeBSD on ...
3
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1answer
1k views

use `/run/shm` (formerly `/dev/shm`) as a temp directory

Is it good practice to create a directory in /run/shm (formerly /dev/shm) and use that like a temp directory for an application? Background: I am writing black box tests for a program which does a ...
1
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3answers
345 views

Are .bz2 files inside /var/lib/pengine safe to delete?

My problem is that my /var partition is over 80% (total size: 4.9G). I was reviewing the files into this partition and I saw a file which has 3.4G. (/var/lib/pengine) I dig into that /pengine file ...
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2answers
116 views

Why does find -exec du sum up differently?

I have family pictures and movies in a folder /media/data/Selbstgemacht and I'd like to find the size of all pictures. In /media/data I use find Selbstgemacht -type f -iname '*.jpg' -exec du -ch '{}' ...
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5answers
9k views

Find the total size of certain files within a directory branch

Assume there's an image storage directory, say, ./photos/john_doe, within which there are multiple subdirectories, where many certain files reside (say, *.jpg). How can I calculate a summary size of ...
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4answers
259 views

Ways to organize and access frequently visited directories and files?

In my Ubuntu, I have added some frequented directories to the bookmarks of Nautilus, for visiting them quicker. Nautilus can consume a lot of memory, when it has been kept open for long and there ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Why do upgrades to KDM/KDE not preserve changes to configuration files?

The kdebase-workspace package on Arch Linux only preservers changes made to /usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc when the package is updated. I need to edit /usr/share/config/kdm/Xsetup to get my monitors to ...
1
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1answer
185 views

sudo chown -R $USER:admin /usr/local - revert back to ROOT?

On OS X, but may also apply to *NIX. This question was asked/answered previously, and I know it's safe to chown on /usr/local for my admin user account, which I've done to install git with homebrew ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Where is <libraryname>.pc?

When installing a library with configure, make and make install, does make install copy <libraryname>.pc to some place? If yes: Where is it? If no: Should we copy it somewhere rather than ...
0
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1answer
73 views

What is the difference between ~ and / in paths [duplicate]

When I first log in to Unix on my Mac, I usually see a ~ after my username in the command line. However, if I look at the apps contained in that directory ~/Applications they are not all of my ...
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3answers
327 views

Is this command safe to run from / as root

find . * -depth -print0 | xargs -0 rmdir It finds and removes all empty folders (including hidden ones) recursively. I only tired it on my home folder and a pendrive in Linux PC and it worked but I ...
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3answers
914 views

What are the world writable directories by default?

In a standard Linux filesystem, which of these common directories are world-writable by default? /tmp /etc /var /proc /bin /boot /.... .... Why are they world-writable? Does that pose ...
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2answers
115 views

Why does a grep reboot the machine?

On a RHEL 6.5 Desktop, if I use: sudo grep -r foo /* my desktop reboots. Q: Why?? How to debug this? It's the third time my Desktop reboots because of this :D
2
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1answer
69 views

What are files in `/var/crash/`?

I know when a program crashes, some files creating in /var/crash/. But I don't know what these files are! Is that error logs?
242
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3answers
70k views

What is the purpose of the lost+found folder in Linux and Unix?

There is a folder at the root of Linux and Unix operating systems called /lost+found/ What is it for? Under what circumstances would I interact with it? How would I interact with it?
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2answers
241 views

Where should I copy-paste-install software to?

I'm installing IntelliJ, and the readme tells me to choose an installation folder. Where is a good, standard place to put installed programs?
5
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1answer
140 views

Strange kind of “stealth” directory on Linux

I am in a Linux machine and am working with a directory that is aptly named "stealth", because it runs and hides! Take a look at this behavior: bash-3.2$ ls /net bash-3.2$ ls -la /net total 4 ...
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3answers
59 views

Where should I place my websites files with multiple vhosts?

If vhosts are enabled, where should I place my website files? /home/aunser/www /var/www/site1, /var/www/site2 /usr/local/website/site1, /usr/local/website/site2 the systems is CentOS 6.x/RHEL ...
2
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1answer
43 views

updatedb for a beginner

The updatedb command, as I understand it, is basically the utility that keeps the mlocate.db database file updated. And it's a good idea to keep it updated regularly. For that matter, I've kept a ...
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3answers
1k views

What are the advantages of the Unix file system structure

If I install an application in Linux for example Debian/Gnu Linux, the files of the applications are copied to many different directories in the file system. Some scripts goes into /usr/share .. ...
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1answer
172 views

What are the advantages / disadvantages Linux file hierarchy has in compare to other OSs? [duplicate]

does it make any difference whether a file system hierarchy chooses to sort files by types and put them all under one directory (like all the binaries are under bin) or on the other hand sort them by ...
1
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3answers
72 views

mysql database no space available

I was restoring a 200 GB database into a newly installed RHEL machine. However, while restoring I ran into no space available issue. Is it possible to change the directory where the databases are ...
1
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4answers
102 views

What code should I use to download and install my script into a user-writable directory in the user's PATH (without requiring sudo)?

Edit: places where I said $HOME/.bin I should have written $HOME/bin or any equivalent is fine. I.E, any user-writable directory that is in the user's PATH. So I have a bash script which I am ...
2
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1answer
75 views

Possible to move boot files?

I just bought an external hard drive that's 1TB. I formatted my laptop and burned Linux to it. The thing is, I also use my hard drive for other things. Can I move these boot files into a custom ...
1
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1answer
69 views

Encrypt my disk but allowing to enter the password with SSH

Can you help me with this problem please? I need encrypt whole disk on Debian 7.5, (it will be work as server) but I need enter encryption password via SSH. So I need encrypt whole disk except primary ...
2
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2answers
45 views

Who should own files shared by a group and where should they go

I am configuring a Linux work station that will be used by a small number of users (20-30). These users will belong to a small set of groups (5-10) with each user belonging to at least one group and ...
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4answers
241 views

How to exclude directories from `ls -R` output?

If ls -aR | grep ":$" returns ./.hiddendir2: ./dir1: ./dir3: ./dir3/.hiddendir4: then how can you update the pattern given to grep so that you only get ./dir1: ./dir3: (note that the last ...
2
votes
4answers
73 views

Is there a folder accessible to all process and users at all times?

I have a script that gathers debugging info from the running environment and I need to figure out were I can save that info. It may be called anytime: at boot when the system is running at ...
1
vote
4answers
112 views

Into which directory should I install programs in Linux?

I want to install a program in Linux and run it as a daemon. (Team Speak 3 in this case, but the question is general in nature). There is no package provided, only tarred binaries. Where in directory ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

Is there a standards-specified location for user configuration files?

I'm talking about files like ~/.foo found on a user's home dir. I'm working on a program that reads from such a file, and I'd also like to clean up my user root directory if I can. Is there a ...
1
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2answers
157 views

How to know in which partition my application has been installed?

If I run df -h in an Oracle LINUX 5 server, I got below output: $ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 12G 8.8G 1.8G 84% / ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

How can I know the default path for log directory?

I am programming in shell scripting, and would like to log results. Is there any way to know what is the default path storage for logfiles in my operating system? I have researched: set | grep ...
3
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2answers
60 views

convention regarding offline temporary data

When writing small utility programs, I sometimes want to keep small amounts of data around between executions, usually for caching purposes, but don't want the program to run as a daemon. Are there ...
19
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1answer
705 views

At what point did the /home directory appear?

Originally in Unix, /usr was used for user (home) directories. So if I had a user named alex, my home directory would be /usr/alex. (Interestingly, Plan 9, the successor to Unix, still has user ...
1
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1answer
64 views

Where did this copy of my home directory come from?

I was working on a project to control my digital camera using Ubuntu and gphoto2. At one point I noticed a new "~" directory in my project folder, /home/greg/project/~. When I enter this new "~" ...
5
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3answers
2k views

Mounting a device — role of /dev, /media and /mnt, and the mount command [closed]

I have several closely related questions about what happens when I insert a CD. The files on the CD /media/Ubuntu\ 11.04\ i386/, but from what I've seen /dev/cdrom is also involved. What is the ...
1
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2answers
114 views

Location of Xorg headers on FreeBSD 10

I'm running FreeBSD 10 and I'd like to build dwm. I've installed Xorg using pkg install. Where are the headers located? Maybe I'm just old fashioned but I first looked in /usr/X11R6 ... not there. ...
3
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1answer
317 views

Why does installing to /usr/bin automatically install to /usr/bin/X11?

I am using the command: install ./prog /usr/bin to copy the program to the /usr/bin directory. Doing this automatically installs the prog to /usr/bin/X11. Deleting from /usr/bin also automatically ...