The layout of the directory hierarchy — questions like “where does this file belong?” or “what is this directory for?”.

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7
votes
1answer
6k views

Difference between lib, lib32, lib64, libx32, and libexec

My 64 bit Ubuntu 13.04 system has the following directories in /: lib lib32 lib64 libx32 libexec In the /usr directory there is: lib lib32 libx32 libexec This seemed like something that could be ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Can I share /usr/local between multiple Linux distributions?

I tried Ubuntu 12.04 and based on my understanding I made the following partitions: 2GB Swap (I have 2GB of RAM) 1GB /boot, since I'll be installing different kernel versions (I'm starting kernel ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

use `/run/shm` (formerly `/dev/shm`) as a temp directory

Is it good practice to create a directory in /run/shm (formerly /dev/shm) and use that like a temp directory for an application? Background: I am writing black box tests for a program which does a ...
2
votes
1answer
918 views

How to safely remove hard-link to home folder?

In a folder owned by my user /sites/Website there is a dir named ~. When I cd to this directory, I am redirected to ~/, my home folder. At first I thought this was a symbolic link, but doing ls ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Download files and create same file structure as the source

I have a config file which consists of list of URIs I want to download. For example, http://xyz.abc.com/Dir1/Dir3/sds.exe http://xyz.abc.com/Dir2/Dir4/jhjs.exe http://xyz.abc.com/Dir1/itr.exe ...
3
votes
1answer
428 views

Why do the nfs4 tutorials recommend to bind mount sub directories

All NFS4 tutorials I have encountered so far recommend bind mounting real directories into the export root. Is this a technical necessity? If I had a directory that's only meant to be exported, is it ...
36
votes
8answers
1k views

What's the most appropriate directory where to place files shared between users?

Or: where can I put files belonging to a group? Suppose there are two users on a Unix system: joe and sarah. They are both members of the movies-enthusiast group. Where should I put their movie ...
0
votes
2answers
3k views

increasing a logical volume

I need to increase the logical volume of the var directory, the maximum size of var right now is 10GB, I need to make it 50GB. I have a Centos 6 server. The output of df -h is: Filesystem ...
4
votes
1answer
511 views

Where should user configuration files go? [duplicate]

If I look at my home directory there are a large number of dot files. If I am creating a new program that needs a user configuration file, is there any guidance where to put it? I could imagine ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Changing the defult directory structure

If I start a new distro (e.g. LFS): How can I change the directory structure? What should I expect after it's ready? (probably can't install most of the packages without modification, right? But, ...
4
votes
3answers
688 views

Where are userspace programs supposed to save their logs?

I am writing a script that I want to run without privileges. I want the errors that the script encounters to be logged to some log file. I do not not have privileges to write one to /var/log. And I do ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Why can I only run a .sh file from the parent directory, not the child directory

I am a Linux noob. I noticed that this does not work: /tomcatDirectory/bin $ startup.sh //command not found but this does work /tomcatDirectory $ bin/startup.sh I am used to Windows. It seems ...
0
votes
0answers
905 views

/media, /mnt, /run and automounting

As of Fedora15, a new directory under root was introduced. A couple of quotes: i.e. /var is "persistant runtime data" and /run is "volatile runtime data", and /etc is "persistant system config ...
4
votes
1answer
417 views

What is Darwin's 'private' directory for?

Darwin has a private directory that I don't see in the Unix documentation I've found. Is that a Mac-specific directory? What is it for? Is it preserved between system upgrades?
5
votes
1answer
275 views

Can I exclude /run from my backup scheme?

I have written a rsync-based system backup for my Linux system. The aim is to be able to redeploy the system entirely from the saves, so I don't only backup homedirs. I have excluded a few top-level ...
-1
votes
1answer
102 views

How to know what will execute at startup/bootup?

I would like what scripts will run at start, without needing to "restart and see what happens", is there any way to know what 'services' are ready to run? Shoud I check every single file in ls ...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

What is the “~/” directory?

I'm trying to locate where some files are stored and I can easily browse to them via ssh by going to "cd ~/foldername", however, I have no idea what directory "~/" actually is. When I browse around ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

What are the advantages of the Unix file system structure

If I install an application in Linux for example Debian/Gnu Linux, the files of the applications are copied to many different directories in the file system. Some scripts goes into /usr/share .. ...
2
votes
2answers
288 views

How to determine whether a linux filesystem belongs to a running system or not

I need to write a program that receives a block device as input, like /dev/sda1, and has to perform a set of operations depending on if the filesystem inside are currently running or not. We'll ...
5
votes
5answers
386 views

Which is better for installed applications: /usr/bin or user's home directory?

It's not entirely clear to me whether it would be better to install a GUI application in /usr/bin or my home directory. I've read through this article and this one, but it doesn't really talk about ...
4
votes
1answer
751 views

How to utilize XDG directories and paths in Bash?

I wonder how to access not only the variables defined in ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs with xdg-user-dir, e.g. "$(xdg-user-dir VIDEOS)", but also the following standard variables: ...
5
votes
2answers
187 views

What is the 't' folder?

I'm mainly a Windows guy, programming C#, but I often do use technologies that were intended for Linux machines like git, MySQL, perl scripts, memcached, php, etc... And therefore I am exposed to ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

How to visualize directory tree structures?

I know I can use tree to show the nested content of a directory. Alas, its output is hardly beautiful as I want to include it in a documentation. So eye-candy is a requirement. So I was wondering if ...
0
votes
1answer
398 views

Install GCC at a custom location without machine prefix

When installing GCC, libraries, header files and some executables are placed in directories similar to /usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.4/ and /usr/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.4/. I'm ...
16
votes
0answers
492 views

How did the system settings directory on UNIX come to be named /etc? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What does etc stand for? And why isn't it named /cnf or /syscf or /cfg? No one I have ever asked has been able to tell me, not that I have access to any of the minds ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Convention for primary app deployment dir structure on a Unix-like app server

The client I'm working for deploys their application to a directory they created at the root level. While acknowledging it is a matter of local preference, I am unsure if this is in accordance with ...
2
votes
1answer
329 views

How to move the /var/www directory to a USB HDD?

I have a default OpenBSD 5.1 install. How Can I enabled httpd, OK. QUESTION: How can I use the /dev/sd0a on /mnt/usbhdd type ffs (local, nodev) instead of the default "/var/www" directory? What ...
2
votes
2answers
150 views

Do best-practices indicate that usage of /var should be restricted to sudoers

I wrote a package, and would like to use /var to persist some data. The data I'm storing would perhaps even be thought of as an addition for /var/db. The pattern I observe is that files in /var/db, ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Where to locate “sockets”

I am new to this, so sorry if its obvious. I am running a Debian server and installing the likes of UWSGI, NGinx etc on there. The configurations keep talking about pointing to "sockets". In the ...
3
votes
3answers
326 views

Why do I get 3048 MB from a 64 MB flash memory?

I have a Linux based STB (set-top-box) and it features a 64 MB flash memory and 256 MB of RAM. I wanted to take a backup of some of my settings before I flash it with another image, but I wasn't sure ...
44
votes
8answers
25k views

Why is the root directory on a web server put by default in “/var/www”?

Tuxfiles says the following about the Linux directory structure: /var: This directory contains variable data that changes constantly when the system is running. FHS on /var says the ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

What is the equivalent of /usr/share/misc on Solaris?

The Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard has the following to say: This directory contains miscellaneous architecture-independent files which don't require a separate subdirectory under /usr/share. ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Home folder structure in Ubuntu 12.04.1?

Long story short, i just accidentally deleted my entire home folder. Thankfully it seems like the hidden files are still there. I'm not sure, but aren't all of the folders within the home folder ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Where to install applications

I'm a long-time Windows user in the middle of a multi-year personal migration to Linux-based development. On Windows when I installed an application it got put in the Program Files folder and I'd ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Transform directory structure

I have the following folder structure root folder |-al2 |- GER.zip |- ENG.zip |-ww |- GER.zip |- ENG.zip and so on. The folder names are random strings. I want to sort the files in ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Why can't I navigate into my Documents directory?

I'm in bash and running F17 as su. My pwd is /home/user and when I ls I see Desktop Documents Downloads Music Pictures Public Templates Videos However, I'm unable to cd into any of these. My ...
3
votes
1answer
313 views

How does the Linux file structure work?

I see the different folders bin, dev, mnt, proc, srv, sys, etc. What are the properties of all these different folders? What are there purposes? Are there files in some of them that I should not ...
10
votes
2answers
351 views

Why do so many programs live in PATH?

One thing that puzzles me about desktop Linux, at least, is that just about everything is in my PATH. By everything, I mean every desktop application, including things like gnome-character-map and ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

Linking “..” do somewhere other than parent directory and other strange fs beharviors

Can the entry ".." become linked to someplace other than the parent directory? Is it possible to cause "tar" to create this weird behavior? Scenario: I have a pre-built compiler to a embeded system, ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Looping over directory entries in bash and saving to an array

(See update at the foot of the question). This is a followup question to "Make directory copies using find". This question involved manipulating a bunch of directories, This got too complicated to ...
4
votes
1answer
912 views

opendir and readdir encoding strings behind my back?

(You can skip the details to the last couple of lines if you're able to answer the question :) ) I'm on an Ubuntu 12.04. I'm trying to resolve an old issue that I've posted about in the past (if ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

Preferred mount points for internal HDDs

I am relatively new to Linux and I apologise if this is a silly question. I read the Linux FS Hierarchy document but it didn't answer my question. I would like to know if there is a typical drive ...
11
votes
5answers
15k views

Find the total size of certain files within a directory branch

Assume there's an image storage directory, say, ./photos/john_doe, within which there are multiple subdirectories, where many certain files reside (say, *.jpg). How can I calculate a summary size of ...
2
votes
1answer
213 views

How should I install software from source so that I can make my configuration manageable and reproducible?

I work with a lot of scientific software on Linux distributions (normally Debian variants and Red Hat variants). In order to maximize performance and get access to the latest features, it's often ...
1
vote
2answers
347 views

Filesystem organization for software in HOME

When installing software in $HOME, how do the linux filesystem hierarchy directories map to subdirectories of $HOME? I am asking this question so that I can write a build system that picks reasonable ...
4
votes
1answer
319 views

configuration ethics (esthetics): /etc vs $HOME

Ok this may not be a very concrete question, and is perhaps subject to taste, yet I'm struggling to get this right so here it goes. I have a computer. This computer has linux on it (thank god). Arch ...
4
votes
2answers
133 views

Location of application files?

Does Linux/Unix have a unified location for Application files, like "~/Library/Application Support" on Mac OS X? I'm making a Python script that will need to store permanent but changing data, and I ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Permissions/ownership of /usr/local/bin

From what I understand, the right place to put your own scripts is /usr/local/bin (for instance a script I use to back up some files). I notice that this folder is currently (by default) owned by ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

Where should a local executable be placed?

I have an executable for the perforce version control client (p4). I can't place it in /opt/local because I don't have root privileges. Is there a standard location where it needs to be placed under ...
1
vote
2answers
94 views

Where are “headers” for other languages kept?

If I were to write a library for a C-incompatible language (like D), where would be the best place to install my "header files" to? usr/include seems like a bad idea, since the FHS says it's for ...