The character based display-interface between human and computer.

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450
votes
3answers
85k views

What is the exact difference between a 'terminal', a 'shell', a 'tty' and a 'console'?

I think these terms almost refer to the same thing, when used loosely: terminal shell tty console What exactly does each of these terms refer to?
21
votes
2answers
13k views

How to colorize output of ls ?

I'm running CentOS in Linux text mode. When I run the command ls /usr/, the output is too hard to read (dark blue on black). How can I change the text coloring?
5
votes
3answers
753 views

Construct a command by putting a string into a tty

I managed to do this echo -n "command" > /dev/tty1 The letters appear, and the cursor moves, but they are "ghosts" - if you hit enter, nothing happens (they are not in stdin). Edit: In the ...
5
votes
2answers
19k views

Can I change the font of terminal?

I have a Un*x OS installed without desktop, I wonder if it is possible to change the font of terminal.
15
votes
7answers
16k views

Disable screen blanking on text console

I'm running linux clusters, mostly on SLES10. The servers are mostly blades, accessed via remote console. There is a real console in the server room, but switched off. I would like to disable the ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Show a notification across all running X displays

Using the command line, I'd like show a notification on every running X display. ( and running console ) Something like: notify-send-all 'Warning' 'Nuclear launch in 5 minutes, please evacuate' Is ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Read what is written to /dev/tty*

How can I read what is written to /dev/tty*(* = 0 - number of tty)? I tried sudo tail -f /dev/tty1 on one terminal(X) and then sudo cp .emacs /dev/tty1 from another. X didn't show the the content of ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Remapping caps-lock to escape, and menu to compose, on the linux console

When running X I use a .xmodmaprc to remap certain keys thusly: ! Make it so that both Caps Lock and Escape do Escape clear Lock keysym Caps_Lock = Escape ! Remap the menu key as Compose keysym Menu ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How to change font-size, number of rows / columns on a terminal

I am running a Linux server (without xwindows or any kind of GUI), with a modern 22" LCD monitor. Given the huge size of my monitor, I would like to increase the number of rows and columns on my ...
47
votes
2answers
35k views

Linux: Difference between /dev/console , /dev/tty and /dev/tty0

On a Linux system, what is the difference between /dev/console , /dev/tty and /dev/tty0 ? What is their respective use? How do they compare?
31
votes
1answer
856 views

What happens when Ctrl + Alt + F<Num> is pressed?

I am looking for an explanation of what happens in Linux when this key combination is pressed to change the current terminal. In particular, what software component intercepts this key combination and ...
9
votes
1answer
34k views

How to set the resolution in text consoles (troubleshoot when any `vga=…` fails)

It is a common way to set the resolution of a text consoles (that are usually available by Ctrl-Alt-F1 thru Ctrl-Alt-F6) by using a vga=... kernel parameter. I'm using Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid, output of ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Adjusting keyboard sensitivity in a command line terminal?

When using a tty login shell by entering Ctrl-Alt-F1 from an Ubuntu 12.04 install on a laptop the keyboard seems overly sensitive and if my finger lingers for a moment on a button I end up with ...
10
votes
6answers
533 views

Options to show images when on the console

When I am on the console (the tty, the virtual terminal, which you reach with Ctrl+Alt+F1-6, not a terminal emulator), what options do I have to view images, tiff, whatever that's not text?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Preventing access to TTY when X is killed

Assume I start an X server manually from a virtual console /dev/tty1 with xinit or startx, with the line id:3:initdefault: set in /etc/inittab. The X server gets run and put on another virtual ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Ubuntu Server, set terminal font to a custom ttf font?

I would like to change the system (console) font of my ubuntu server to a custom (downloaded) font. Is this possible? I've tried to use: dpkg-reconfigure console-setup but the only allows me to ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

256 color in real console

I have in my .bashrc export TERM=xterm-256color but this cause blinking all colored text (ls --color, in vim etc.) in real console (CTRL + ALT + F1) . So is there any possibility to recognize in ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Convert .bdf/.pcf font to .psf(u) for using as consolefont?

I am using Arch Linux. Is it possible to convert a BDF or PCF font to a PSF font for use in console/CONSOLEFONT in rc.conf? I haven't found anything that can do it,except bdf2psf which I got the ...
13
votes
6answers
12k views

How can I page up or down in tmux with Terminal.app?

I have tmux installed. But I can not scroll up or down. I.e. as soon as I tmux I get only a portion of the screen and can not scroll up. crtl-b + Page Up does not work since I am in Mac and I can not ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Can I configure bash to execute “clear” before every command typed in the console?

I would like to configure bash to execute clear command every time I type some command in the terminal (before executing my command). How can I do that? I'm using Debian Linux.
10
votes
2answers
4k views

How to define a Compose Key in terminal (no desktop environment)?

I would like to define a compose key on my system (Debian Sid "Wheezy"). I have no Xorg (and don't want any desktop environment). Only in terminal. I would like to set it up on my Alt-Gr key (right ...
4
votes
1answer
6k views

Change the number of rows and columns in the TTY [duplicate]

I want to resize the terminal which comes up when you press CtrlAltF1 (or F2,F3,...). 25x80 is small for a 24" screen. Tried using stty, but the commands stty columns 200 and stty rows 50 does not ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

What does raw/unraw keyboard mode mean?

In the magic sysrq key combinations, there is the combination alt+sysrq+r which, according to wikipedia, does the following: Switch the keyboard from raw mode, the mode used by programs such as ...
8
votes
4answers
7k views

How to get file to a host when all you have is a serial console?

When all you have is a serial console (say via telnet through a terminal server), what methods can be used to transfer files in/out of a host? Cut/paste works for the small/printable stuff and I've ...
6
votes
5answers
383 views

Is it possible to view media on the console?

I know the console (outside X11, e.g. /dev/tty1) works in text-mode, but I think if it is possible to play music using programs like cvlc and mplayer, it should be possible to view pictures and watch ...
5
votes
1answer
417 views

Locking console input without screen blanking

I'm looking for a method to lock/disable keyboard input into a text console (tty, no xorg) without blanking the screen. I would like to be able to monitor the on-screen progress of a long-running ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Send a command from the console to a running X server

Is it possible to send a command from the console, say tty1, to the terminal currently occupied with X (in my case tty7 as I use Debian), to tell for example mplayer to play a movie? Edit - made a ...
3
votes
2answers
451 views

Print console colors

Wrote a bash function to display the console colors. But, it seems some of the colors are not possible to show that way! (?) Also, note the strange "bright black"! (Note: The below screendump is of ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

tty (console): disable monitor

In .xinitrc, I use xrandr --output LVDS1 --off to disable the monitor of my laptop (I always use a projector at school). But, before I log in with xinit, or when I temporary go to the console ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

create several /dev/xconsole files automatically upon boot

I understand from my previous question that the /dev/xconsole file can be created using mkfifo. On my system (Debian Wheezy), /dev/xconsole gets created automatically. I am wondering who creates it ...
2
votes
1answer
188 views

Locking console when computer suspends/hibernates

In X I've used the following script (from here) to lock the computer with i3lock each time pm-suspend or pm-hibernate are invoked. /etc/pm/sleep.d/00screensaver-lock: #!/bin/sh # ...
2
votes
1answer
419 views

How can I make the TTY use the appropriate charset?

Note: forked of this per recommendation here. While I got the X keyboard layout right on my own after I fixed that stupid typo, I still can't set the console charset, key map, font map, or whatever ...
2
votes
3answers
350 views

RHEL - shutdown a locked out system

I have a RHEL system which is locked out. I don't have the password of the system. If am able to shut it down or properly restart it, I can edit the kernel to have single mode and then reset the ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

How can I retain the console input in mplayer when reading from stdin?

I'm playing around with the command line interface of mplayer. I'd like to script it in the following way find /some/path/ -type f | grep -vif blacklist | mplayer -shuffle -playlist - where ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

create several /dev/xconsole files

I am using /dev/xconsole to send system logs from rsyslog. That works great, because I am don't have to store the logs on disk. I would like to have another similar file , i.e /dev/xconsole1 where I ...