The system console is an interface used by human to control the computer. Basically, it consists of a keyboard and a monitor that can provide a text user interface.

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What is the exact difference between a 'terminal', a 'shell', a 'tty' and a 'console'?

I think these terms almost refer to the same thing, when used loosely: terminal shell tty console What exactly does each of these terms refer to?
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2answers
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How to colorize output of ls ?

I'm running CentOS in Linux text mode. When I run the command ls /usr/, the output is too hard to read (dark blue on black). How can I change the text coloring?
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3answers
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Construct a command by putting a string into a tty

I managed to do this echo -n "command" > /dev/tty1 The letters appear, and the cursor moves, but they are "ghosts" - if you hit enter, nothing happens (they are not in stdin). Edit: In the ...
12
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2answers
43k views

Can I change the font of terminal?

I have a Unix-like OS installed without desktop. Is it possible to change the font of the terminal?
0
votes
1answer
701 views

Which systemd service starts text console on the framebuffer device?

I'm working with an embedded platform and need to have /dev/fb0 clear for my own use (the device accessible over serial console while the screen is used to display information, without X.). I've ...
73
votes
2answers
56k views

Linux: Difference between /dev/console , /dev/tty and /dev/tty0

On a Linux system, what is the difference between /dev/console, /dev/tty and /dev/tty0? What is their respective use and how do they compare?
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votes
2answers
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Show a notification across all running X displays

Using the command line, I'd like show a notification on every running X display. ( and running console ) Something like: notify-send-all 'Warning' 'Nuclear launch in 5 minutes, please evacuate' Is ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

How to change font-size, number of rows / columns on a terminal

I am running a Linux server (without xwindows or any kind of GUI), with a modern 22" LCD monitor. Given the huge size of my monitor, I would like to increase the number of rows and columns on my ...
32
votes
7answers
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Disable screen blanking on text console

I'm running linux clusters, mostly on SLES10. The servers are mostly blades, accessed via remote console. There is a real console in the server room, but switched off. I would like to disable the ...
15
votes
3answers
66k views

How to set the resolution in text consoles (troubleshoot when any `vga=…` fails)

It is a common way to set the resolution of a text consoles (that are usually available by Ctrl-Alt-F1 thru Ctrl-Alt-F6) by using a vga=... kernel parameter. I'm using Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid, output of ...
12
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2answers
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Adjusting keyboard sensitivity in a command line terminal?

When using a tty login shell by entering Ctrl-Alt-F1 from an Ubuntu 12.04 install on a laptop the keyboard seems overly sensitive and if my finger lingers for a moment on a button I end up with ...
7
votes
1answer
5k views

Read what is written to /dev/tty*

How can I read what is written to /dev/tty*(* = 0 - number of tty)? I tried sudo tail -f /dev/tty1 on one terminal(X) and then sudo cp .emacs /dev/tty1 from another. X didn't show the the content of ...
4
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2answers
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256 color in Linux console

I have in my .bashrc export TERM=xterm-256color but this cause blinking all colored text (ls --color, in vim etc.) in a Linux console (Ctrl+Alt+F1). So is there any possibility to recognize in ...
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2answers
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Remapping caps-lock to escape, and menu to compose, on the linux console

When running X I use a .xmodmaprc to remap certain keys thusly: ! Make it so that both Caps Lock and Escape do Escape clear Lock keysym Caps_Lock = Escape ! Remap the menu key as Compose keysym Menu ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

tty (console): disable monitor

In .xinitrc, I use xrandr --output LVDS1 --off to disable the monitor of my laptop (I always use a projector at school). But, before I log in with xinit, or when I temporary go to the console ...
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vote
1answer
200 views

Remapping Caps Lock to Compose

Because I now and then need to use scandinavian letters despite using US Dvorak as my layout, I would like to use Caps Lock as a compose key. (I don't need Caps Lock at all, I'm not a forum troll) ...
0
votes
1answer
113 views

How are virtual consoles related to traditional computer terminals?

This is extracted (with some rewording) from Computer terminal and virtual console, which has been closed with a hatnote linking to What is the exact difference between a 'terminal', a ...
16
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9answers
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Best way to use a shell with Cygwin in Windows 7

I installed Cygwin, to be disappointed that bash by default runs within "cmd.exe". I googled around and found Console2. It's not a particularly well-designed application, as doing adjustments is ...
14
votes
4answers
60k views

Command line to return to the GUI after Ctrl-Alt-F1?

I'm unable to return to the GUI with Ctrl-Alt-F7 (or any of the 12 function keys). I have some unsaved work and I don't want to lose them. Are there any other key combinations that will allow me to ...
33
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1answer
1k views

What happens when Ctrl + Alt + F<Num> is pressed?

I am looking for an explanation of what happens in Linux when this key combination is pressed to change the current terminal. In particular, what software component intercepts this key combination and ...
17
votes
3answers
3k views

Can I configure bash to execute “clear” before every command typed in the console?

I would like to configure bash to execute clear command every time I type some command in the terminal (before executing my command). How can I do that? I'm using Debian Linux.
15
votes
5answers
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Is there any reason why I get ^[[A when I press up arrow at the console login screen?

Whenever I'm at the console login, I press up arrow intentionally to see the previously typed commands. But I see this ^[[A. But when I press Ctrl Alt Print Screen Scroll Lock Pause Break Page Up ...
11
votes
7answers
2k views

Options to show images when on the console

When I am on the console (the tty, the virtual terminal, which you reach with Ctrl+Alt+F1-6, not a terminal emulator), what options do I have to view images, tiff, whatever that's not text?
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votes
2answers
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How to get fewer ttys with Systemd?

In the old days I just modified /etc/inittab. Now, with systemd, it seems to start tty[1-6] automatically, how should I disable tty[4-6]? Looks like there's only one systemd service file, and it use ...
10
votes
4answers
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use mosh without giving up local scrollback / history?

Is there a way to use mosh without giving up the local scrollback? Basically, in some circumstances, IP-roaming is indeed useful and needed, but the extra terminal emulation and key prediction seems ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Preventing access to TTY when X is killed

Assume I start an X server manually from a virtual console /dev/tty1 with xinit or startx, with the line id:3:initdefault: set in /etc/inittab. The X server gets run and put on another virtual ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Ubuntu Server, set terminal font to a custom ttf font?

I would like to change the system (console) font of my ubuntu server to a custom (downloaded) font. Is this possible? I've tried to use: dpkg-reconfigure console-setup but the only allows me to ...
5
votes
2answers
467 views

Fully Disable PrntScr Key

I recently came across a Linux feature I have never seen before, where pressing the PrntScr button on the keyboard prints a physical piece of paper with the contents of my console. I really need to ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Convert .bdf/.pcf font to .psf(u) for using as consolefont?

I am using Arch Linux. Is it possible to convert a BDF or PCF font to a PSF font for use in console/CONSOLEFONT in rc.conf? I haven't found anything that can do it,except bdf2psf which I got the ...
27
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1answer
11k views

Fix terminal after displaying a binary file

I'd tried command cat with an executable file: cat /bin/ls Now I can't read any word in this terminal (Linux console). How can I fix it?
14
votes
2answers
4k views

What does raw/unraw keyboard mode mean?

In the magic sysrq key combinations, there is the combination alt+sysrq+r which, according to wikipedia, does the following: Switch the keyboard from raw mode, the mode used by programs such as ...
12
votes
2answers
6k views

How to define a Compose Key in terminal (no desktop environment)?

I would like to define a compose key on my system (Debian Sid "Wheezy"). I have no Xorg (and don't want any desktop environment). Only in terminal. I would like to set it up on my Alt-Gr key (right ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Change the status of the keyboard leds, from within an X session, without root access

I am trying to force the capslock led on. xset does not work for me, so I am trying to use setleds. In a graphical console, this command returns: > LANG=C setleds -L +caps KDGKBLED: Inappropriate ...
6
votes
1answer
16k views

Change the number of rows and columns in the TTY [duplicate]

I want to resize the terminal which comes up when you press CtrlAltF1 (or F2,F3,...). 25x80 is small for a 24" screen. Tried using stty, but the commands stty columns 200 and stty rows 50 does not ...
11
votes
4answers
13k views

How to get file to a host when all you have is a serial console?

When all you have is a serial console (say via telnet through a terminal server), what methods can be used to transfer files in/out of a host? Cut/paste works for the small/printable stuff and I've ...
7
votes
2answers
492 views

How to determine the current color of the console output?

I know that, if a coloured terminal is available, one can colour the output of it using escape characters. But is there a possibility to find out, which colour the output is currently being displayed ...
6
votes
5answers
776 views

Is it possible to view media on the console?

I know the console (outside X11, e.g. /dev/tty1) works in text-mode, but I think if it is possible to play music using programs like cvlc and mplayer, it should be possible to view pictures and watch ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Send a command from the console to a running X server

Is it possible to send a command from the console, say tty1, to the terminal currently occupied with X (in my case tty7 as I use Debian), to tell for example mplayer to play a movie? Edit - made a ...
5
votes
1answer
599 views

Locking console input without screen blanking

I'm looking for a method to lock/disable keyboard input into a text console (tty, no xorg) without blanking the screen. I would like to be able to monitor the on-screen progress of a long-running ...
3
votes
2answers
695 views

tmux: shared session, one user in a pane, another in another pane, two different cursors

I've decided to try tmux: have been reading the docs and googling around, trying to find a way to have two users sharing a session, each with a different cursor. However, giving 777 permissions to ...
3
votes
2answers
536 views

Print console colors

Wrote a bash function to display the console colors. But, it seems some of the colors are not possible to show that way! (?) Also, note the strange "bright black"! (Note: The below screendump is of ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Return to GUI from text console with many X11 servers?

I know the thread How to get out of TTY and into X session apparently about similar thing as here, and Command line to return to the GUI after Ctrl-Alt-F1 about chvt. I have Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. I run ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

How to permanently disable root-password prompt for recovery mode, RHEL6

In the rare cases that a RHEL or CentOS 6 system is prevented from booting by (for instance) an improper shutdown, or a forced fsck-check failure on boot, the console will prompt the user for a root ...
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vote
0answers
26 views

How to find blockage for Virtual Terminal switching?

I am stuck on virtual terminal 14. Starting some SDL-software brought me there. Now I cannot go anywhere else. Every "chvt" freezes (at the "VT_WAITACTIVE" ioctl) if it is not chvt 14 which succeeds. ...
4
votes
10answers
565 views

How to quickly add some space in the terminal?

I often find myself scrolling back through the terminal with the mouse-wheel to see the first of many C++ template errors issued by a command. Anticipating this, I'll hold down the Return key to give ...
3
votes
1answer
714 views

How can I capture an OpenBSD install console?

So.. How can I save the text that is based on Q/A's when installing an OpenBSD 5.3? Or I only have the choice to manually type the texts down? or an OCR software using printscreens?
2
votes
1answer
120 views

What is the kernel frame buffer?

I was reading the "mplayer" man pages trying to play video using just the console, (I don't have or don't want to install X11). It mentions that I can use the kernel frame buffer device which is ...
2
votes
1answer
340 views

create several /dev/xconsole files automatically upon boot

I understand from my previous question that the /dev/xconsole file can be created using mkfifo. On my system (Debian Wheezy), /dev/xconsole gets created automatically. I am wondering who creates it ...
2
votes
1answer
368 views

Locking console when computer suspends/hibernates

In X I've used the following script (from here) to lock the computer with i3lock each time pm-suspend or pm-hibernate are invoked. /etc/pm/sleep.d/00screensaver-lock: #!/bin/sh # ...
2
votes
1answer
945 views

How can I make the TTY use the appropriate charset?

Note: forked of this per recommendation here. While I got the X keyboard layout right on my own after I fixed that stupid typo, I still can't set the console charset, key map, font map, or whatever ...