You can do this with
smbclient (which will also need
smbclient --user=yourusername --domain=yourdomain //server/share
This will give you an FTP-like interface to the share which may not be what you're looking for. You can also use the command to download particular files, print files, etc. Check the manpage for full usage information.
If you want to mount the Windows share as a filesystem, you can use the
mount.cifs command (on Ubuntu, it's in the cifs-utils package, but your distribution might be different) to mount a windows file share. This will also let you add Windows fileshare mounts to your
fstab file for automatic mounting during boot.
I know you asked about command line tools, but the file manager of your windowing environment also might have the ability to connect to a Windows file share too, the Dolphin file manager on KDE can do this, and Nautilus on Gnome can do this as well.