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Apparently glibc can be compiled with --enable-kernel to support older kernel versions. However, I haven't been able to find information on what kernel versions are supported on a particular glibc version. Ideally, I want to see a compatibility matrix for every glibc (2.x) and kernel (2.6.x) releases. Does it exist?

If it doesn't exist, perhaps it's because every glibc versions (in the last 5 years or so) supports all kernels since 2.6.0?

(Arch = x86-64, if that matters)

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According to the project's README you can use glibc with 2.4 kernels, but you will lose some functionality:

When working with Linux kernels, the GNU C Library version 2.4 is intended primarily for use with Linux kernel version 2.6.0 and later. We only support using the NPTL implementation of pthreads, which is now the default configuration. Most of the C library will continue to work on older Linux kernels and many programs will not require a 2.6 kernel to run correctly. However, pthreads and related functionality will not work at all on old kernels and we do not recommend using glibc 2.4 with any Linux kernel prior to 2.6.

Note that --enable-kernel=VERSION means:

compile for compatibility with kernel not older than VERSION

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