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After trying for a long time to get a wireless connection, I am now able to get an extremely sketchy one (as in a few seconds of actual Internet access every few minutes). Running wpa_supplicant -d -i wlp0s29f7u5 -c wifi.conf -Dwext in one VT and while ! yes | pacman -Syu; do :; done in another, after several minutes it is still not done, but once in a while it manages to download a few files.

iw dev wlp0s29f7u5 link on the Arch machine reports a signal strength of about -40 dB, which is a lot worse than the neighbouring Ubuntu laptop at -70 dB.

Connection output:

# wpa_supplicant -d -i wlp0s29f7u5 -c wifi.conf -Dwext
wpa_supplicant v2.0
Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant
Initializing interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' conf 'wifi.conf' driver 'wext' ctrl_interface 'N/A' bridge 'N/A'
Configuration file 'wifi.conf' -> '/root/wifi.conf'
Reading configuration file '/root/wifi.conf'
ctrl_interface='/var/run/wpa_supplicant'
Priority group 0
   id=0 ssid='BTHub4-GRK6'
WEXT: cfg80211-based driver detected
wext: interface wlp0s29f7u5 phy: phy0
rfkill: initial event: idx=0 type=1 op=0 soft=0 hard=0
SIOCGIWRANGE: WE(compiled)=22 WE(source)=21 enc_capa=0xf
  capabilities: key_mgmt 0xf enc 0x1f flags 0x0
netlink: Operstate: linkmode=1, operstate=5
wlp0s29f7u5: Own MAC address: e8:4e:06:14:7a:77
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=0 key_idx=0 set_tx=0 seq_len=0 key_len=0
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=0 key_idx=1 set_tx=0 seq_len=0 key_len=0
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=0 key_idx=2 set_tx=0 seq_len=0 key_len=0
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=0 key_idx=3 set_tx=0 seq_len=0 key_len=0
wpa_driver_wext_set_countermeasures
wlp0s29f7u5: RSN: flushing PMKID list in the driver
wlp0s29f7u5: Setting scan request: 0 sec 100000 usec
WPS: Set UUID for interface wlp0s29f7u5
WPS: UUID based on MAC address - hexdump(len=16): 7c c4 e6 42 89 cb 59 26 95 2a b6 fd f8 85 e6 3a
EAPOL: SUPP_PAE entering state DISCONNECTED
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: KEY_RX entering state NO_KEY_RECEIVE
EAPOL: SUPP_BE entering state INITIALIZE
EAP: EAP entering state DISABLED
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
wlp0s29f7u5: Added interface wlp0s29f7u5
wlp0s29f7u5: State: DISCONNECTED -> DISCONNECTED
wpa_driver_wext_set_operstate: operstate 0->0 (DORMANT)
netlink: Operstate: linkmode=-1, operstate=5
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b06 len=12
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b1a len=16
wlp0s29f7u5: State: DISCONNECTED -> SCANNING
wlp0s29f7u5: Starting AP scan for wildcard SSID
Scan requested (ret=0) - scan timeout 10 seconds
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b19 len=16
wlp0s29f7u5: Event SCAN_RESULTS (3) received
Received 838 bytes of scan results (2 BSSes)
wlp0s29f7u5: BSS: Start scan result update 1
wlp0s29f7u5: BSS: Add new id 0 BSSID cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 SSID 'BTHub4-GRK6'
wlp0s29f7u5: BSS: Add new id 1 BSSID 00:22:b0:60:09:69 SSID 'leandro'
BSS: last_scan_res_used=2/32 last_scan_full=0
wlp0s29f7u5: New scan results available
wlp0s29f7u5: Selecting BSS from priority group 0
wlp0s29f7u5: 0: cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 ssid='BTHub4-GRK6' wpa_ie_len=0 rsn_ie_len=24 caps=0x11 level=10
wlp0s29f7u5:    selected based on RSN IE
wlp0s29f7u5:    selected BSS cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 ssid='BTHub4-GRK6'
wlp0s29f7u5: Request association: reassociate: 0  selected: cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4  bssid: 00:00:00:00:00:00  pending: 00:00:00:00:00:00  wpa_state: SCANNING
wlp0s29f7u5: Trying to associate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (SSID='BTHub4-GRK6' freq=2457 MHz)
wlp0s29f7u5: Cancelling scan request
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: clearing own WPA/RSN IE
wlp0s29f7u5: Automatic auth_alg selection: 0x1
RSN: PMKSA cache search - network_ctx=(nil) try_opportunistic=0
RSN: Search for BSSID cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
RSN: No PMKSA cache entry found
wlp0s29f7u5: RSN: using IEEE 802.11i/D9.0
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Selected cipher suites: group 8 pairwise 24 key_mgmt 2 proto 2
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: clearing AP WPA IE
WPA: set AP RSN IE - hexdump(len=26): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: using GTK TKIP
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: using PTK CCMP
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: using KEY_MGMT WPA-PSK
WPA: Set own WPAioctl[SIOCSIWFREQ]: Device or resource busy
 IE default - hexdump(len=22): 30 14 01 00 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 04 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
wlp0s29f7u5: No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
wlp0s29f7u5: State: SCANNING -> ASSOCIATING
wpa_driver_wext_set_operstate: operstate 0->0 (DORMANT)
netlink: Operstate: linkmode=-1, operstate=5
Limit connection to BSSID cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 freq=2457 MHz based on scan results (bssid_set=0)
wlp0s29f7u5: set_disable_max_amsdu: -1
wlp0s29f7u5: set_ampdu_factor: -1
wlp0s29f7u5: set_ampdu_density: -1
wlp0s29f7u5: set_disable_ht40: 0
wlp0s29f7u5: set_disable_sgi: 0
wpa_driver_wext_associate
wpa_driver_wext_set_drop_unencrypted
wpa_driver_wext_set_psk
wlp0s29f7u5: Association request to the driver failed
wlp0s29f7u5: Setting authentication timeout: 5 sec 0 usec
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: External notification - EAP fail=0
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: External notification - portControl=Auto
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
RSN: Ignored PMKID candidate without preauth flag
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b1a len=16
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b06 len=12
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b1a len=27
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x11003 ([UP][LOWER_UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x11003 ([UP][LOWER_UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8c08 len=65
AssocResp IE wireless event - hexdump(len=49): 01 04 82 84 0b 16 32 08 0c 12 18 24 30 48 60 6c dd 18 00 50 f2 02 01 01 08 00 03 a4 00 00 27 a4 00 00 42 43 5e 00 62 32 2f 00 dd 05 00 09 86 01 00
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=0 ifi_flags=0x11003 ([UP][LOWER_UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
Wireless event: cmd=0x8b15 len=24
Wireless event: new AP: cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: Event ASSOCINFO (4) received
wlp0s29f7u5: Association info event
resp_ies - hexdump(len=49): 01 04 82 84 0b 16 32 08 0c 12 18 24 30 48 60 6c dd 18 00 50 f2 02 01 01 08 00 03 a4 00 00 27 a4 00 00 42 43 5e 00 62 32 2f 00 dd 05 00 09 86 01 00
wlp0s29f7u5: Event ASSOC (0) received
wlp0s29f7u5: State: ASSOCIATING -> ASSOCIATED
wpa_driver_wext_set_operstate: operstate 0->0 (DORMANT)
netlink: Operstate: linkmode=-1, operstate=5
wlp0s29f7u5: Associated to a new BSS: BSSID=cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
wlp0s29f7u5: Associated with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Association event - clear replay counter
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Clear old PTK
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=0
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=0
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Unauthorized
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=1
EAPOL: SUPP_PAE entering state CONNECTING
EAPOL: SUPP_BE entering state IDLE
wlp0s29f7u5: Setting authentication timeout: 10 sec 0 usec
wlp0s29f7u5: Cancelling scan request
wlp0s29f7u5: RX EAPOL from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: Setting authentication timeout: 10 sec 0 usec
wlp0s29f7u5: IEEE 802.1X RX: version=1 type=3 length=95
wlp0s29f7u5:   EAPOL-Key type=2
wlp0s29f7u5:   key_info 0x8a (ver=2 keyidx=0 rsvd=0 Pairwise Ack)
wlp0s29f7u5:   key_length=16 key_data_length=0
  replay_counter - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01
  key_nonce - hexdump(len=32): c8 c9 ae c3 18 6c 23 4a a0 38 99 55 ec 9c c5 da ad 2d 00 dd 7a b3 33 c2 20 8b ab 41 e5 cd 1e b6
  key_iv - hexdump(len=16): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_rsc - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_id (reserved) - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_mic - hexdump(len=16): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
wlp0s29f7u5: State: ASSOCIATED -> 4WAY_HANDSHAKE
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: RX message 1 of 4-Way Handshake from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (ver=2)
RSN: msg 1/4 key data - hexdump(len=0):
WPA: Renewed SNonce - hexdump(len=32): ab ec fb 19 6f 98 4a 00 75 78 4a 0d e0 37 fd d2 c3 44 29 66 2b 7e 93 57 06 0a f5 68 1b 02 aa fa
WPA: PTK derivation - A1=e8:4e:06:14:7a:77 A2=cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
WPA: Nonce1 - hexdump(len=32): ab ec fb 19 6f 98 4a 00 75 78 4a 0d e0 37 fd d2 c3 44 29 66 2b 7e 93 57 06 0a f5 68 1b 02 aa fa
WPA: Nonce2 - hexdump(len=32): c8 c9 ae c3 18 6c 23 4a a0 38 99 55 ec 9c c5 da ad 2d 00 dd 7a b3 33 c2 20 8b ab 41 e5 cd 1e b6
WPA: PMK - hexdump(len=32): [REMOVED]
WPA: PTK - hexdump(len=48): [REMOVED]
WPA: WPA IE for msg 2/4 - hexdump(len=22): 30 14 01 00 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 04 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
WPA: Replay Counter - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Sending EAPOL-Key 2/4
WPA: KCK - hexdump(len=16): [REMOVED]
WPA: Derived Key MIC - hexdump(len=16): c1 ea 02 f5 f1 e3 47 51 44 b9 05 4b 04 37 bc 2a
wlp0s29f7u5: RX EAPOL from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: IEEE 802.1X RX: version=1 type=3 length=175
wlp0s29f7u5:   EAPOL-Key type=2
wlp0s29f7u5:   key_info 0x13ca (ver=2 keyidx=0 rsvd=0 Pairwise Install Ack MIC Secure Encr)
wlp0s29f7u5:   key_length=16 key_data_length=80
  replay_counter - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02
  key_nonce - hexdump(len=32): c8 c9 ae c3 18 6c 23 4a a0 38 99 55 ec 9c c5 da ad 2d 00 dd 7a b3 33 c2 20 8b ab 41 e5 cd 1e b6
  key_iv - hexdump(len=16): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_rsc - hexdump(len=8): da 02 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_id (reserved) - hexdump(len=8): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  key_mic - hexdump(len=16): 4c 67 eb c0 a0 be 0f ac 28 36 7d da e5 f2 b9 08
RSN: encrypted key data - hexdump(len=80): a5 39 e0 01 c0 2b 4b 12 f5 2d de e5 5f 1e 41 a3 f7 27 13 a6 cc 9a 94 a7 cb a5 7c 69 1c 3e 0f 4c 93 a5 93 7b cc c3 2b fc 20 47 ba d5 f3 60 5f c9 70 cb 71 b1 01 81 31 95 b0 a3 15 ef b6 fe f4 87 02 6d 7d f7 11 02 db b4 c3 92 ea ce 6e f3 a9 13
WPA: decrypted EAPOL-Key key data - hexdump(len=72): [REMOVED]
wlp0s29f7u5: State: 4WAY_HANDSHAKE -> 4WAY_HANDSHAKE
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: RX message 3 of 4-Way Handshake from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (ver=2)
WPA: IE KeyData - hexdump(len=72): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00 dd 26 00 0f ac 01 01 00 9c 1c 9f 0b f1 8d 96 63 e1 a9 8e e6 f8 74 95 71 ee 71 65 d5 e5 3e df 4c 42 ae 80 a1 e3 b1 a7 5f dd 00 00 00 00 00
WPA: RSN IE in EAPOL-Key - hexdump(len=26): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
WPA: GTK in EAPOL-Key - hexdump(len=40): [REMOVED]
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Sending EAPOL-Key 4/4
WPA: KCK - hexdump(len=16): [REMOVED]
WPA: Derived Key MIC - hexdump(len=16): f9 ab 08 31 3c b6 d4 55 6b 2f 39 9d bb 9a 99 a8
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Installing PTK to the driver
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=3 key_idx=0 set_tx=1 seq_len=6 key_len=16
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=1
wlp0s29f7u5: State: 4WAY_HANDSHAKE -> GROUP_HANDSHAKE
RSN: received GTK in pairwise handshake - hexdump(len=34): [REMOVED]
WPA: Group Key - hexdump(len=32): [REMOVED]
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Installing GTK to the driver (keyidx=1 tx=0 len=32)
WPA: RSC - hexdump(len=6): da 02 00 00 00 00
wpa_driver_wext_set_key: alg=2 key_idx=1 set_tx=0 seq_len=6 key_len=32
wlp0s29f7u5: WPA: Key negotiation completed with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 [PTK=CCMP GTK=TKIP]
wlp0s29f7u5: Cancelling authentication timeout
wlp0s29f7u5: State: GROUP_HANDSHAKE -> COMPLETED
wlp0s29f7u5: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 completed [id=0 id_str=]
wpa_driver_wext_set_operstate: operstate 0->1 (UP)
netlink: Operstate: linkmode=-1, operstate=6
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=1
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=1
EAPOL: SUPP_PAE entering state AUTHENTICATING
EAPOL: SUPP_BE entering state SUCCESS
EAP: EAP entering state DISABLED
EAPOL: SUPP_PAE entering state AUTHENTICATED
EAPOL: Supplicant port status: Authorized
EAPOL: SUPP_BE entering state IDLE
EAPOL authentication completed successfully
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=1 ifi_flags=0x11043 ([UP][RUNNING][LOWER_UP])
RTM_NEWLINK, IFLA_IFNAME: Interface 'wlp0s29f7u5' added
WEXT: if_removed already cleared - ignore event
EAPOL: startWhen --> 0
EAPOL: disable timer tick
RTM_NEWLINK: operstate=1 ifi_flags=0x1003 ([UP])

Device info:

# lsusb | grep WLAN
Bus 004 Device 004: ID 0bda:8178 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. RTL8192CU 802.11n WLAN Adapter

Firmware: rtlwifi/rtl8192cufw.bin

Interface driver: rtl8192cu

OS:

# uname -a
Linux archiso 3.10.10-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Fri Aug 30 11:30:06 CEST 2013 x86_64 GNU/Linux

The progress usually pauses at the EAPOL: disable timer tick line for some seconds before continuing.

Any ideas what could be wrong? The output is mostly Greek to me.

Do I need to do anything else in the background, such as renewing the DHCP lease, when the connection is established to utilise it as soon as possible?

And finally, is -40 dB considered a "bearable" link quality?

Update: In dmesg I now have an enormous amount of stuff like this:

wlp0s29f7u5: Connection to AP cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 lost
cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 2/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 3/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: authentication with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 timed out
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticated
wlp0s29f7u5: associating with AP with corrupt beacon and probe response
wlp0s29f7u5: associate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: RX AssocResp from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (capab=0x431 status=0 aid=24)
wlp0s29f7u5: associated
wlp0s29f7u5: Connection to AP cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 lost
cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: PL
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 2/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 3/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: authentication with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 timed out
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4
wlp0s29f7u5: send auth to cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: authenticated
wlp0s29f7u5: associating with AP with corrupt beacon and probe response
wlp0s29f7u5: associate with cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (try 1/3)
wlp0s29f7u5: RX AssocResp from cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 (capab=0x431 status=0 aid=24)
wlp0s29f7u5: associated
wlp0s29f7u5: Connection to AP cc:33:bb:13:8a:f4 lost

There are a number of weird things going on here:

  • What is a "corrupt beacon and probe response" and how do I fix it?
  • Why does it think I'm in Poland when I'm in the UK?
  • Why does the first three connection attempts always time out while the fourth succeeds?
share|improve this question
    
What wifi controller is it? What machine is it? Could you paste the output of lspci? –  mtahmed Oct 16 '13 at 21:02
    
Okay I think that wifi controller is the problem. What OS are you using? Is it archlinux? –  mtahmed Oct 16 '13 at 21:38
    
Okay so as far as I know, the problem is with the rtl8192c* drivers. Try installing the dkms-rtl8192cu package from the AUR and reboot and try. Let me know if that works. BTW, what machine are you using? A laptop? –  mtahmed Oct 17 '13 at 1:43
    
It's a desktop machine, but why would that ever make a difference? –  l0b0 Oct 17 '13 at 7:02
    
Because certain hardware combinations of rtl8192 are known not to work. Did you try the dkms-rtl8192cu driver? –  mtahmed Oct 17 '13 at 15:51

1 Answer 1

The problem is your wpa_supplicant settings; first -Dwext is old. use -Dnl80211 second; don't add anything but net.lo and net.wlp0s29f7u5 to your initial script and add them at boot time to load. third; remove anything like NetworkManager or Wicd fourth; Clean you net file and config_wlp0s29f7u5="dhcp" to it. this will be helpful if you use dhcp on your WIFI connection. also in your terminal with super user access type dhcpcd. just for fun; it may solve you lots of pain

share|improve this answer
    
also check your kernel for Dnl80211 support and your wifi card module also –  r004 Oct 27 '13 at 15:54
    
Hi @r004, and welcome to USE. It's generally considered good practice to modify your own answers rather than adding comments to them if you have additional information. Also, you can format text as code by using backticks. –  l0b0 Oct 28 '13 at 9:49

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