I think this picture explains enough:
socket or numa node is a collection of cores with a local access to memory. Each socket contains 1 or more cores. Note that this does not necessarily refer to a physical socket, but rather to the memory architecture of the machine, which will depend on your chip vendor.
processor core (cpu core, logical processor) refers to a single processing unit capable of performing computations.
So the above indicates that you would need multiple processors in the machine to leverage NUMA architecture.
You can have compiled NUMA support in the kernel and run it on single processor machine. It's similar like with SMP support. It's compiled in as well but when the kernel detects that there is single processor in the system it will not use it (disable it). The same holds for NUMA. You can check
dmesg kernel ring buffer or
/var/log/dmesg file for
NUMA - single processor (or NUMA disabled) X multi processor:
No NUMA configuration found
NUMA: Allocated memnodemap from b000 - b440
SMP - single processor X multi processor:
SMP: Allowing 1 CPUs, 0 hotplug CPUs
SMP: Allowing 32 CPUs, 0 hotplug CPUs