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I have a horrible situation where I have to restore data from damaged raid system in a rescue Debian Linux. I just want to mount them all to /mnt/rescue in read only modus to be able to copy VMWare GSX images to another machine and migrate them to ESXi later on. The output for relevant commands is as follows.

fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 1500.3 GB, 1500301910016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 182401 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0005e687

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1         523     4200997   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda2             524         785     2104515   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda3             786      182401  1458830520   fd  Linux raid autodetect

Disk /dev/sdb: 1500.3 GB, 1500301910016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 182401 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00014fc7

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1         523     4200997   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdb2             524         785     2104515   fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdb3             786      182401  1458830520   fd  Linux raid autodetect

Disk /dev/md0: 4301 MB, 4301717504 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 1050224 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/md0 doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/md1: 2154 MB, 2154954752 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 526112 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/md1 doesn't contain a valid partition table

I was trying to mount the disks as follows.

mount -o ro /dev/sda1 /mnt/rescue

Then I get following error.

mount: unknown filesystem type 'linux_raid_member'

Guessing file system is not going well either.

mount -o ro -t ext3 /dev/sda1 /mnt/rescue/
mount: /dev/sda1 already mounted or /mnt/rescue/ busy

So I tried to create a virtual device as follows.

mdadm -A -R /dev/md9 /dev/sda1

This results in the following message.

mdadm: cannot open device /dev/sda1: Device or resource busy
mdadm: /dev/sda1 has no superblock - assembly aborted

Now I am lost, I have no idea how to recover the disks and get the data back. The following is the output of mda --examine for all 3 disks (I think it should be 3x raid1 disks).

/dev/sda1:

          Magic : a92b4efc
        Version : 0.90.00
           UUID : 6708215c:6bfe075b:776c2c25:004bd7b2 (local to host rescue)
  Creation Time : Mon Aug 31 17:18:11 2009
     Raid Level : raid1
  Used Dev Size : 4200896 (4.01 GiB 4.30 GB)
     Array Size : 4200896 (4.01 GiB 4.30 GB)
   Raid Devices : 3
  Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 0

    Update Time : Sun Jun  2 00:58:05 2013
          State : clean
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0
       Checksum : 9070963e - correct
         Events : 19720


      Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
this     1       8        1        1      active sync   /dev/sda1

   0     0       0        0        0      removed
   1     1       8        1        1      active sync   /dev/sda1
   2     2       8       17        2      active sync   /dev/sdb1

/dev/sda2:

          Magic : a92b4efc
        Version : 0.90.00
           UUID : e8f7960f:6bbea0c7:776c2c25:004bd7b2 (local to host rescue)
  Creation Time : Mon Aug 31 17:18:11 2009
     Raid Level : raid1
  Used Dev Size : 2104448 (2.01 GiB 2.15 GB)
     Array Size : 2104448 (2.01 GiB 2.15 GB)
   Raid Devices : 3
  Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 1

    Update Time : Sat Jun  8 07:14:24 2013
          State : clean
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0
       Checksum : 120869e1 - correct
         Events : 3534


      Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
this     1       8        2        1      active sync   /dev/sda2

   0     0       0        0        0      removed
   1     1       8        2        1      active sync   /dev/sda2
   2     2       8       18        2      active sync   /dev/sdb2

/dev/sda3:

          Magic : a92b4efc
        Version : 0.90.00
           UUID : 4f2b3b67:c3837044:776c2c25:004bd7b2 (local to host rescue)
  Creation Time : Mon Aug 31 17:18:11 2009
     Raid Level : raid5
  Used Dev Size : 1458830400 (1391.25 GiB 1493.84 GB)
     Array Size : 2917660800 (2782.50 GiB 2987.68 GB)
   Raid Devices : 3
  Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 2

    Update Time : Sat Jun  8 14:47:00 2013
          State : clean
 Active Devices : 1
Working Devices : 1
 Failed Devices : 1
  Spare Devices : 0
       Checksum : 2b2b2dad - correct
         Events : 36343894

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 64K

      Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
this     1       8        3        1      active sync   /dev/sda3

   0     0       0        0        0      removed
   1     1       8        3        1      active sync   /dev/sda3
   2     2       0        0        2      faulty removed

cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md2 : inactive sda3[1](S) sdb3[2](S)
      2917660800 blocks

md1 : active raid1 sda2[1] sdb2[2]
      2104448 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

md0 : active raid1 sda1[1] sdb1[2]
      4200896 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

md2 seems to be damaged and it is probably the raid with my VMWare images.

I would like to access the data from md2 (the data on the active and not damaged disk, that is /dev/sda3) by mounting it outside of the raid.

Is it a good idea to just execute

mdadm --manage /dev/md2 --remove /dev/sda3 

(would it even work as md2 is not seen by fdisk)?

Should I re-assamble the other raids md0 and md1 by running

mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1

?

UPDATE 0: I am not able to assemble md0 and md2.

root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
mdadm: cannot open device /dev/sda1: Device or resource busy
mdadm: /dev/sda1 has no superblock - assembly aborted
root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3
mdadm: cannot open device /dev/sda3: Device or resource busy
mdadm: /dev/sda3 has no superblock - assembly aborted

Mounting with mount -t auto is not possible.

root@rescue ~ # mount -t auto -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/rescue/
/dev/md0 looks like swapspace - not mounted
mount: you must specify the filesystem type
root@rescue ~ # mount -t auto -o ro /dev/md2 /mnt/rescue/
mount: you must specify the filesystem type

Mounting /dev/md1 works but no VMWare data on it.

root@rescue /mnt/rescue # ll
total 139M
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 513K May 27  2010 abi-2.6.28-19-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 631K Sep 16  2010 abi-2.6.32-24-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Oct 16  2010 abi-2.6.32-25-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Nov 24  2010 abi-2.6.32-26-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Dec  2  2010 abi-2.6.32-27-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Jan 11  2011 abi-2.6.32-28-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Feb 11  2011 abi-2.6.32-29-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Mar  2  2011 abi-2.6.32-30-server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 632K Jul 30  2011 abi-2.6.32-33-server
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root    1 Aug 31  2009 boot -> .
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 302K Aug  4  2010 coffee.bmp
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  89K May 27  2010 config-2.6.28-19-server
...

UPDATE 1:

I tried to stop md2 and md0 and assemble once again.

mdadm -S /dev/md0

root@rescue ~ # mount -t auto -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/rescue/
/dev/md0 looks like swapspace - not mounted
mount: you must specify the filesystem type

mdadm -S /dev/md2

root@rescue ~ # mount -t auto -o ro /dev/md2 /mnt/rescue/
mount: you must specify the filesystem type

Any ideas?

UPDATE 2:

Assembling from one disk is not working due to following error message.

root@rescue ~ # mdadm -S /dev/md2
root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md2 /dev/sda3
mdadm: /dev/md2 assembled from 1 drive - not enough to start the array.

root@rescue ~ # mdadm -S /dev/md2
mdadm: stopped /dev/md2
root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md2 /dev/sdb3
mdadm: /dev/md2 assembled from 1 drive - not enough to start the array.

Even new raid fails.

root@rescue ~ # mdadm -S /dev/md9
mdadm: stopped /dev/md9
root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md9 /dev/sda3
mdadm: /dev/md9 assembled from 1 drive - not enough to start the array.

root@rescue ~ # mdadm -S /dev/md9
mdadm: stopped /dev/md9
root@rescue ~ # mdadm --assemble /dev/md9 /dev/sdb3
mdadm: /dev/md9 assembled from 1 drive - not enough to start the array.

Creating new md disk fails too.

root@rescue ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[1] sdb1[2]
      4200896 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[1] sdb2[2]
      2104448 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

unused devices: <none>
root@rescue ~ # mdadm -A -R /dev/md9 /dev/sda3
mdadm: failed to RUN_ARRAY /dev/md9: Input/output error
mdadm: Not enough devices to start the array.
root@rescue ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md9 : inactive sda3[1]
      1458830400 blocks

md0 : active raid1 sda1[1] sdb1[2]
      4200896 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[1] sdb2[2]
      2104448 blocks [3/2] [_UU]

unused devices: <none>
root@rescue ~ # mdadm -S /dev/md9
mdadm: stopped /dev/md9
root@rescue ~ # mdadm -A -R /dev/md9 /dev/sdb3
mdadm: failed to RUN_ARRAY /dev/md9: Input/output error
mdadm: Not enough devices to start the array.

UPDATE 3:

Removing disks from md2 is not working.

mdadm --remove /dev/md2 /dev/sda3
mdadm: cannot get array info for /dev/md2

UPDATE 4:

Finally, running assemble with --force hopefully did it. I am now copying files to another server.

share|improve this question
    
mdadm --assemble is the way to go. Try without --remove. –  Hauke Laging Jun 9 '13 at 19:00
    
mdadm --assemble /dev/md0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 mdadm: /dev/md0 has been started with 2 drives (out of 3). But then mounting fails (I don't know the file system type). mount -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/rescue /dev/md0 looks like swapspace - not mounted mount: you must specify the filesystem type –  Tony Stark Jun 9 '13 at 19:06
    
Maybe sd?1 is swapspace. Try to assemble md1 and md2 and to mount with mount -t auto .... –  Hauke Laging Jun 9 '13 at 19:28
    
@HaukeLaging: I tried to assemble md0, md1 and md2 (see updated post). Only md1 assembles successfully and mounts. The other two fail to assemble and mount. Any ideas? –  Tony Stark Jun 9 '13 at 19:45
    
Your data are likely on md2, the largest volume –  sendmoreinfo Jun 9 '13 at 19:46

1 Answer 1

If you possibly can you should make a dd image of your entire disk before you do anything, just in case.

You should be able to mount /dev/sda3 directly once mdadm releases it:

mdadm --stop /dev/md2

mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/rescue

If that doesn't work testdisk can usually find filesystems on raw block devices.

share|improve this answer

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