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Related to TTY numbers, it looks like there are 64 TTYs (find /dev -name 'tty[0-9]*' | cut -c 9- | sort -n | tail -n 1 and documentation). tty0 is the current virtual console, Ctrl+Meta+F1 reports that it's connected to tty1, and tty in a GNOME terminal reports that it's connected to /dev/pts/N. So what are /dev/ttyN for 12<N<64 used for?

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Again, as I answered to this question, it is entirely up to whoever sets the system up. Normally only a limited number of gettys are started, as people nowadays use X instead of a tty (or use screen(1)...), starting more than a handful is waste. If you want to start gettys on all 64, feel free.

The pty (and some other exotic starting letters) are pseudo ttys, faked by software to run e.g. xterms and other tty users, in contrast to the "real" ttys (which aren't so real anymore...).

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