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Here is my situation :

  • I know how to compile some programs. I know how make and gcc works. I know bash.
  • I am fairly comfortable with command-line.
  • I know how it works in my computer for some programs.

I am not satisfied. What I want to learn is this :

  • I want to learn how programs really work, what really happens when I compile a program, which file gets copied in which directory, etc. I often find myself unable to successfully compile a program, so I end up using apt-get to install it. I find it to "magical" for me. I want to know what apt-get does to my computer.
  • I want to learn where to find configuration files and how to edit them. Particularly, I want to learn how mime-types work. I want to know more about environment variables as well.
  • In fact, I am looking for total control over my computer. I think installing Arch Linux would be a good thing, but I want to learn the above before.

Can you show me a resource I can use which is not too technical at the same time? Do you have any suggestion, recommendation?

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Hi, as I told you on SU, this kind of open ended, discussion type question is off topic on all the SE sites. The SE network is about solving specific problems, this will be closed as not-constructive. Try posting it on one of the many linux forums out there. –  terdon Mar 29 '13 at 21:08
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closed as not a real question by vonbrand, Michael Mrozek Mar 30 '13 at 1:24

It's difficult to tell what is being asked here. This question is ambiguous, vague, incomplete, overly broad, or rhetorical and cannot be reasonably answered in its current form. For help clarifying this question so that it can be reopened, visit the help center.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

1 Answer

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I often find myself unable to successfully compile a program, so I end up using apt-get to install it.

Don't do that. You have it backward. You should first check if you can install via apt-get, then if you can't, compile from source.

It's good that you know how to use configure/make, etc., but doing so over and over again unnecessarily is not going to provide much opportunity for learning anything more, and it is not going to benefit your system much either. There are more productive uses for your time WRT learning about linux.

I want to learn how programs really work, what really happens when I compile a program.

That is a pretty hefty regress. I'm not saying that to belittle you -- I have the same "why? then why? then why?" predilection, and I think linux is very appealing to people like this. But, to be honest, I don't think there's an answer to this question that is of much value or meaning to people who can't read or write code.

It seems to me you might very well be interested in programming and I'd encourage you to pursue that interest first, and worry about how compilers work later. If you aren't interested in programming, then don't worry about how compilers work.

I want to learn where to find configuration files and how to edit them.

You find them by consulting the documentation for the software you want to configure. There's no hard and fast standard, though obviously there's lots of stuff in /etc and "hidden" dot directories in $HOME. As for how to edit them, if you mean "what are the rules", linux uses the shell a lot to accomplish system level things, but the configuration for individual applications is usually of a form unique to the application, so again, you have to read the specific documentation.

I want to know more about environment variables as well.

That is a question that can be well addressed within the scope of a wikipedia article. Wikipedia is a great resource for computing questions and the standard there tends to be much higher than it is on the web at large.

I want to learn how mime-types work.

This is similar to the question about environment variables in so far as some casual reading of wikipedia should do it, BUT also sort of like the compiler question in so far as I don't think it is going to be very useful or meaningful to you, currently.

I think installing Arch Linux would be a good thing

From what I know of arch, I think it is potentially a good learning experience. Same with gentoo. Far ahead of both of them in this regard would be Linux From Scratch.

However, I think what I'd recommend over any of that (distro hopping) is, again, programming. If linux is where you're at, either C (which is the native base -- bluntly, all rivers lead to the C eventually, lol) and/or one of perl, python, or ruby. Currently, python seems to be winning popularity contests, but those three are in fact all more-or-less equivalent, so whichever strikes your fancy. Ruby is probably the most generic in form and aimed more at new users than the other two, meaning it is a good first language. Perl has a lot going for it and has been fundamental on linux since forever.

I do not recommend learning via bash or shell programming. You do inevitably need to have a grasp on the shell, but programming wise it lacks a lot of important features and is much more esoteric and fussy (and much less generally useful) than any of perl/python/ruby.

If you live near a city or decent size town, the library system probably has books on introductory programming in C, perl, python and ruby. That's my #1 recommendation, ahead of installing arch or trying to understand apt in depth: get yourself a book and start programming.

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Thanks, that was a very good answer! I will look into the link you provided for Linux From Scratch. As for programming, I consider myself "good" with C, Python, etc. I think my question was more about OSes than programming. And for the apt-get question, I am not interested precisely on learning how apt-get works. For example, if I install gimp, I know that a gimp binary appears in /usr/bin, but apart from that, I want to know what happens behind the scenes. The whole topic of OSes is lacking to me, I think. Learning programming wouldn't learn me what the source code does in regard to the OS. –  Gradient Mar 30 '13 at 0:40
    
1) Don't think of there being a number of different linux OSes; there aren't. There's only one. There is a variety of approaches to it in the various distributions, but in terms of understanding the system as a whole they are all the same thing. 2) "What happens behind the scenes" more or less someone compiled gimp for you, then put the binary and other various related files in a (compressed) archival form that is extracted into your filesystem. That's all. 3) Since you know something of C, have a look at the wikip article on compilers. –  TAFKA 'goldilocks' Mar 30 '13 at 1:08
    
4) You need to get more specific with your questions, and reference available material when you do so (as in "here it it says this, what does that mean?"). There are literally thousands of books written on this stuff, so saying, "Can you show me a resource I can use?" would equal "Sure, the library and the internet", lol. –  TAFKA 'goldilocks' Mar 30 '13 at 1:09
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As @goldilocks hints at, pick one distribution you are confortable with, and stick to that. Get aquainted with their web site, check out the release notes, installation/administration guides, the works. See what interests you (programming? setting up web pages? configuring networks? packaging new programs? quality assurance?), see how your distribution recruits new helpers in the selected area, and apply. Look around for projects that interest you (programs in your area), see to build them, try them out, fix bugs, ... –  vonbrand Mar 30 '13 at 1:16
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