In any regular shell, likes of bash, ksh, csh, sh etc, the answer is, NO. If you are running some sort of an audit enabled shell, likes of Power Broker from Beyond Trust (formerly Symark), it is anyone's guess, but most probably it is being logged if someone decided to pay quite a bit of money to licence those audit tools.
If your question is to figure out if someone can see something malicious or something wrong you did, while working on a system and the output from cat could show this mishap, and if your system is actively being monitored (say under one of the many acronyms like SOX, HIPAA, PCI etc.) you might find yourself in hot water. If you are just curious that, a Linux system, in its out of box configuration does something like this, I believe, you'll be disappointed.