Basically, it's a portability (and reliability) issue.
echo didn't accept any option and didn't expand anything. All it was doing was outputting its arguments separated by a space character and terminated by a newline character.
Now, someone thought it would be nice if we could do things like
echo "\n\t" to output newline or tab characters, or have an option not to output the trailing newline character.
They then thought harder but instead of adding that functionality to the shell (like
perl where inside double quotes,
\t actually means a tab character), they added it to
David Korn realized the mistake and introduced a new form of shell quotes:
$'...' which was later copied by
zsh but it was far too late by that time.
Now when a standard Unix
echo receives an argument which contains the two characters
t, instead of outputting them, it outputs a tab character. And as soon as it sees
\c in an argument, it stops outputting (so the trailing newline is not output either).
Other shells/Unix vendors chose to do it differently: they added a
-e option to expand escape sequences, and a
-n option to not output the trailing newline. Some have a
-E to disable escape sequences, some have
-n but not
-e, the list of escape sequences supported by one
echo implementation is not necessarily the same as supported by another.
Sven Mascheck has a nice page that shows the extent of the problem.
echo implementations that support options, there's generally no support of a
-- to mark the end of options (zsh and possibly others support
- for that though), so for instance, it's difficult to output
echo in many shells.
On some shells like
ksh932, the behavior even depends on how the shell was compiled or the environment. So two
bash echos, even from the same version of
bash are not guaranteed to behave the same.
POSIX says: if the first argument is
-n or any argument contains backslashes, then the behavior is unspecified.
bash echo in that regard is not POSIX in that for instance
echo -e is not outputting
-e<newline> as POSIX requires. The Unix specification is stricter, it prohibits
-n and requires expansion of some escape sequences including the
\c one to stop outputting.
Those specifications don't really come to the rescue here given that many implementations are not compliant.
All in all, you don't know what
echo "$var" will output unless you can make sure that
$var doesn't contain backslash characters and doesn't start with
-. The POSIX specification actually does tell us to use
printf instead in that case.
So what that means is that you can't use
echo to display uncontrolled data. In other words, if you're writing a script and it is taking external input (from the user as arguments, or file names from the file system...), you can't use
echo to display it.
This is OK:
echo >&2 Invalid file.
This is not:
echo >&2 "Invalid file: $file"
(Though it will work OK with some (non Unix)
echo implementations like
bash's when the
xpg_echo option has not been enabled in one way or another like at compilation time or via the environment).
printf, on the other hand is more reliable, at least when it's limited to the basic usage of
printf '%s\n' "$var"
Will output the content of
$var followed by a newline character regardless of what character it may contain.
printf %s "$var"
Will output it without the trailing newline character.
Now, there also are differences between
printf implementations. There's a core of features that is specified by POSIX, but then there are a lot of extensions. For instance, some support a
%q to quote the arguments but how it's done varies from shell to shell, some support
\uxxxx for unicode characters. The behavior varies for
printf '%10s\n' "$var" in multi-byte locales, there are at least three different outcomes for
printf %b '\123'
But in the end, if you stick to the POSIX feature set of
printf and don't try doing anything too fancy with it, you're out of trouble.
But remember the first argument is the format, so shouldn't contain variable/uncontrolled data.
A more reliable
echo can be implemented using
echo() ( # subshell for local scope for $IFS
IFS=" " # needed for "$*"
printf '%s\n' "$*"
printf %s "$*"
printf '%b\n' "$*"
The subshell (which implies spawning an extra process in most shell implementations) can be avoided using
local IFS with many shells, or by writing it like:
if [ "$#" -gt 0 ]; then
printf %s "$1"
if [ "$#" -gt 0 ]; then
printf ' %s' "$@"
echo behaviour can be altered.
bash, at run time, there are two things that control the behaviour or
bash option and whether
bash is in posix mode.
posix mode can be enabled if
bash is called as
sh or if
POSIXLY_CORRECT is in the environment or with the the
Default behaviour on most systems:
$ bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"'
\0101% # the % here denotes the absence of newline character
xpg_echo expands sequences as Unix requires:
$ BASHOPTS=xpg_echo bash -c 'echo "\0101"'
It still honours
$ BASHOPTS=xpg_echo bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"'
xpg_echo and POSIX mode:
$ env BASHOPTS=xpg_echo POSIXLY_CORRECT=1 bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"'
$ env BASHOPTS=xpg_echo ARGV0=sh bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"' # The ARGV0=sh is to pass argv here
$ env BASHOPTS=xpg_echo SHELLOPTS=posix ARGV0=sh bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"'
$ env BASHOPTS=xpg_echo SHELLOPTS=posix bash -c 'echo -n "\0101"'
bash is both POSIX and Unix conformant. Note that in POSIX mode,
bash is still not POSIX conformant as it doesn't output
$ env SHELLOPTS=posix bash -c 'echo -e'
The default values for xpg_echo and posix can be defined at compilation time with the
--enable-strict-posix-default options to the
configure script. That's typically what recent versions of OS/X do to build their
/bin/sh. No Unix/Linux implementation/distribution in their right mind would typically do that for
echo behaviour can be altered.
echo expands escape sequences or not and recognises options depends on the content of
$PATH contains a component that contains
/xpg before the
/usr/bin component then it behave the SysV/Unix way (expands sequences, doesn't accept options). If it finds
/bsd first, then it behaves the BSD way (
-e to enable expansion, recognises
-n). The default is system dependant, BSD on Debian:
$ ksh93 -c 'echo -n' # default -> BSD (on Debian)
$ PATH=/foo/xpgbar:$PATH ksh93 -c 'echo -n' # /xpg before /bin or /usr/bin -> XPG
$ PATH=/5binary:$PATH ksh93 -c 'echo -n' # /5bin before /bin or /usr/bin -> XPG
$ PATH=/ucb:/foo/xpgbar:$PATH ksh93 -c 'echo -n' # /ucb first -> BSD
$ PATH=/bin:/foo/xpgbar:$PATH ksh93 -c 'echo -n' # /bin before /xpg -> default -> BSD