This question already has an answer here:
Generating coredumps used to work fine, but after switching over to systemd, I only see the message
Aborted (core dumped)
core file is generated. Has it something to do with systemd?
(Background: My original question can be found here. Thanks schaiba for finding the solution. I provide this Q&A, so others can find the solution easier if they already know that it is a systemd issue.)