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I attempted to install MySQL using Synaptic but it failed to start on update with the following output:

Selecting previously unselected package mysql-client.
(Reading database ... 131143 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking mysql-client (from .../mysql-client_5.5.29-0ubuntu0.12.04.1_all.deb) ...
Setting up mysql-server-5.5 (5.5.29-0ubuntu0.12.04.1) ...
start: Job failed to start
invoke-rc.d: initscript mysql, action "start" failed.
dpkg: error processing mysql-server-5.5 (--configure):
 subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 1
Setting up mysql-client (5.5.29-0ubuntu0.12.04.1) ...
Errors were encountered while processing:
 mysql-server-5.5
E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)
A package failed to install.  Trying to recover:
Setting up mysql-server-5.5 (5.5.29-0ubuntu0.12.04.1) ...
130201 13:36:05 [Note] Plugin 'FEDERATED' is disabled.
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3.4
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
130201 13:36:05 InnoDB: highest supported file format is Barracuda.
130201 13:36:06  InnoDB: Waiting for the background threads to start
130201 13:36:07 InnoDB: 1.1.8 started; log sequence number 1595685
130201 13:36:07  InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
130201 13:36:08  InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1595685
start: Job failed to start
invoke-rc.d: initscript mysql, action "start" failed.
dpkg: error processing mysql-server-5.5 (--configure):
 subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 1
Errors were encountered while processing:
 mysql-server-5.5

I am not sure how to pull apart the where the initialization broke down, or how to get it started. Is it likely that I am missing a library somewhere that would account for this? Does the disabled 'FEDERATED' plugin matter? What is going on with InnoDB anyway?

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The first thing I would check here is if you are out of diskspace in some partition. –  MortenSickel Feb 1 '13 at 20:05
    
@MortenSickel /sda1,/udev,/tmpfs, /run/lock and /run/shm are all under 4% used; is there another mount point I should be looking at? –  mfg Feb 1 '13 at 20:26
    
Have you tried looking at /var/log/mysql.err or /var/log/mysql.log (I think - I use Percona Server)? The disabled FEDERATED plugin shouldn't cause this problem. –  livingstaccato Feb 1 '13 at 21:23
    
What are you upgrading from? –  Karlson Feb 1 '13 at 21:52
    
No, ignore the message about the FEDERATED plugin. Please post the entire MySQL error log. –  Dimitre Radoulov Feb 8 '13 at 21:14

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