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What's the best way to find a laptop with hardware that is amenable to installing and running GNU/Linux? I'm looking for something that will ideally work with GPL'd drivers and/or firmware.

I took a quick look at linux-on-laptops.com, but they don't list some of the newer models for Lenovo, for example. Most of the test cases seem to be quite dated. Also, It's not clear where to start looking given so much information.

Unfortunately, the FSF website doesn't list many laptop possibilities. LAC, referenced from the FSF website, doesn't mention wireless connectivity as being a feature of their laptops, probably because of firmware issues.

I've been looking for a laptop that will accept the ath9k driver because those cards don't require firmware, but getting model type from generic specs pages is not always possible. Searching for lspci dumps online can be can be a roll of the dice.

And then there's the issue of what kind of graphics card is ideal from a FSF perspective. From the FSF website:

This page is not an exhaustive list. Also, some video cards may work with free software, but without 3D acceleration. This information should be considered very tentative -- we are doing our best to update it.

Does anyone know the details of what works and what doesn't? What good combinations are out there? What do you use? Where can I search? Or will I have to bite the bullet and use some proprietary packages?

Thanks in advance.

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related: unix.stackexchange.com/q/1203 – Tshepang Jan 25 '11 at 7:25
I should mention that h-node has become quite a useful resource with time. – sudoman Nov 8 '12 at 15:48

If you want to push the freedom exigence as far as possible, you would also want a coreboot, U-Boot or PMON BIOS. The best (only?) option, in this case, is RMS's laptop: a Lemote YeeLoong, using PMON. It is however rather small (either 8.9'' or 10'') and underpowered, but very cheap. Check out "Lemote linux PC and Linux laptops"

When it comes to choosing a video card, go Intel. A Free (as in Freedom) driver AND firmware and you will have 3D acceleration.

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unfortunately, i've heard that intel integrated graphics do use proprietary firmware, which is generally stored along with the bios. ati/amd graphics cards apparently store firmware on the graphics card itself. – sudoman Dec 2 '13 at 22:47
That link is broken. Can you find a new one with similar information? – iamnotmaynard May 20 '15 at 14:06

Linux compatible hardware

There is a list of notebooks there, too.

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speedyx from identi.ca mentioned santech.it, system76 and ZaReason. I emailed support from ZaReason and I got a reply that you can request an Atheros wifi card that uses the ath9k driver; soon they will be offering it as an option on their website. The only issue that remains in this context is the non-free BIOS, wich I can probably live with. (Probably.) :)

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this might be helpful for you

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yes, that is. this seems to be related, though doesn't seem as extensive: wiki.ubuntu.com/Testing/Laptop/Reports – sudoman Jan 25 '11 at 20:11

You can predict a laptop's degree of amenability by identifying the chip or chip set used to perform each of the important functions. Knowing this, you can research the level of Linux support on the net. As a final test, before disfiguring the laptop's hard drive beyond the point of no return (or refund), you may be able to verify hardware support by booting into Linux from an external drive.

This sounds like a lot of work, and it is. Last December, I went through all of that when I was looking for a small, but relatively powerful laptop, on which to run Linux. I settled on a Toshiba Satellite m645, and have been really happy with the results. See http://www.gletscher.name/linux_on_toshiba_m645 for more.

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interesting CPUs to look at are the Allwinner A10 and A20. The entire boot process (outside of true ROM on the CPU itself) can be performed with a maintained and developing fork of u-boot, which is fully-free.

Make Play Live's Improv is a modular enclosed pluggable motherboard designed to someday fit into various hardware, such as tablets, laptops, and entertainment systems. The project borrows from the PCMCIA standard, but uses different pin configurations. They currently offer an A20 model. A laptop may be in the works if the project as a whole is successful.

Note: The "FEL" recovery mode for these chips is generally accessible through proprietary software, but it seems as if using usb-boot from sunxi-tools may take care of any need for that. There are important hardware functions being reverse-engineered, such as the popular Mali 400 GPU by the lima driver people, and the CedarX A/V decoder.

Even if Make Play Live doesn't create a netbook/laptop, the A20 should be a good choice in one, as the Lemote Yeeloong approaches extinction. :-)

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Systems which rely on the Mali GPU will likely never have free software userspace 3D hardware acceleration drivers because ARM threatened to sue the lima developer for working on the lima driver. (video) – sudoman Jul 14 '15 at 2:11
On the other hand, systems with the i.MX6 SoC are promising candidates as there is a free software driver named "etnaviv" for the Vivante GPU. Some work still needs to be done; however the Novena creators promised to develop a more complete version of the driver. – sudoman Jul 14 '15 at 2:24
up vote 0 down vote accepted

Gluglug sells laptops running LibreBoot, a free software, microcode-free BIOS replacement. On the other hand not every proprietary firmware is replaced with free software (such as the embedded controller.)

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