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I'm testing stability of a machine and I need way to simply write a Bash script to determine if a host is online or not. How could I script this?

if [ ! $(hostisonline) ]; then
    # profit
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2 Answers 2

up vote 4 down vote accepted

A simple solution would be:

ping -W 1 $ip

where -W specifies a timeout in seconds.

Make sure its a capital W. You can also use -i to specify a waiting time in seconds.

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-w works as well. – Bonsi Scott Apr 1 '14 at 14:04
(Thanks for the edit though, still, the answer was not wrong ;) – Bonsi Scott Apr 1 '14 at 14:05
I want something with a shorter timeout than 1 second... decimal values for '-W' don't work – isaaclw Apr 13 at 16:20

If the host answers ping then test if its on line by (just an example):

ping -c 10 $host

If pings are not returned/forbidden, I'd check for individual services through nmap:

nmap $host -p $known_port --max-retries 10 | grep -q open

For example to test if ssh is expected to be opened, replace known_port by 22

as for the script it could be (the example -- it's Sunday morning and I'm bored so it has grown a bit after some edits -- is aimed for testing a bunch of hosts, not just one):

declare -A SERVER
# SERVER["NAME - Description"]="IP KNOWNPORT"
SERVER["SERVER1 - Client foo"]=" 22"
SERVER["SERVER2 - Client bar"]=" 80"
# ...
# add as many server/port combinations as you'd like


printf "========================= ========================= ========== ==========\n"
printf "%25s %25s %10s %10s\n" "Host Description" "IP" "Port" "Status"
printf "========================= ========================= ========== ==========\n"

for server in "${!SERVER[@]}"; do
    set -- ${SERVER["$server"]}
    eval nmap \$1 -p \$2 --max-retries $NMAP_MAX_RETRIES | grep -q open
    if [ "$?" == "0" ]; then
    printf "%25s %25s %10s %10s\n" "$server" "$1" "$2" "$STATUS" 

 printf "========================= ========================= ========== ==========\n"

When executed it returns (fake ips, so servers are down):

 ~$ bash /tmp/
 ========================= ========================= ========== ==========
          Host Description                        IP       Port     Status
 ========================= ========================= ========== ==========
      SERVER2 - Client bar          80     *DOWN*
      SERVER1 - Client foo          22     *DOWN*
 ========================= ========================= ========== ==========
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This requires bash 4.0 or higher. – jordanm Jan 13 '13 at 17:39
true, but just for the array stuff. – hmontoliu Jan 14 '13 at 11:01

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