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$ sudo file -s /dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb1: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data (needs journal recovery) (extents) (large files) (huge files)

What does "needs journal recovery" mean? Do I need to do something? What more can I check?

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"needs journal recovery" just means that it hasn't been unmounted cleanly. This includes the case where the filesystem is still mounted. It also includes, e.g., if the machine crashed last time the filesystem was mounted, so it never got unmounted.

If its needed, journal recovery will be performed automatically when you next mount the filesystem. You could also perform it—assuming the filesystem is not mounted—by running e2fsck.

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