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Given an X11 window ID, is there a way to find the ID of the process that created it?

Of course this isn't always possible, for example if the window came over a TCP connection. For that case I'd like the IP and port associated with the remote end.

The question was asked before on Stack Overflow, and a proposed method was to use the _NET_WM_PID property. But that's set by the application. Is there a way to do it if the application doesn't play nice?

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I've marked ephemient's answer as accepted because it clarified an important confusion of mine. But it doesn't answer the “if … doesn't play nice” part, so I'll change this if someone comes up with an answer to that part. –  Gilles Jan 8 '11 at 12:32
    
Related: PID from window ID/name –  Gilles Aug 29 '12 at 23:16

5 Answers 5

up vote 8 down vote accepted

The _NET_WM_PID isn't set by the window manager (as just another X11 client, how would it know?).

Instead, compliant X11 clients (applications) are expected to set _NET_WM_PID and WM_CLIENT_MACHINE on their own windows. Assuming a well-behaved application, this will be true whether a window manager is running or not.

If WM_CLIENT_MACHINE is your own hostname, then the PID should be meaningful.
Otherwise, "I'd like the IP and port associated with the remote end" — I'm not sure what that means. For example, if you have an ssh session open with X forwarding enabled, windows opened by forwarded apps will be marked with remote PID and hostname, but you don't necessarily have any way to connect back to that remote host.

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_NET_WM_PID is set by the application: right, that does make more sense! But it's not the X11 protocol, it's the relatively recent FreeDesktop specification. –  Gilles Jan 8 '11 at 12:26
    
In the ssh case, as far as the X server is concerned, this is a local connection from the sshd process. Though _NET_WM_PID seems to be set to the remote PID and WM_CLIENT_MACHINE to the remote connection (tested with xterm). –  Gilles Jan 8 '11 at 12:26

Unless your X-server supports XResQueryClientIds from X-Resource v1.2 extension I know no easy way to reliably request process ID. There're other ways however.

If you just have a window in front of you and don't know its ID yet — it's easy to find it out. Just open a terminal next to the window in question, run xwininfo there and click on that window. xwininfo will show you the window-id.

So let's assume you know a window-id, e.g. 0x1600045, and want to find, what's the process owning it.

The easiest way to check who that window belongs to is to run XKillClient for it i.e.:

xkill -id 0x1600045

and see what process have just died. Of course if you don't mind it to die.

Another easy but unreliable way is to check its _NET_WM_PID and WM_CLIENT_MACHINE properties:

xprop -id 0x1600045

That's what tools like xlsclients and xrestop do.

Unfortunately this information may be incorrect not only because the process was evil and changed those, but also because it was buggy. For example after some firefox crash/restart I've seen orphaned windows (from flash plugin, I guess) with _NET_WM_PID pointing to a process, that died long time ago.

Alternative way is to run

xwininfo -root -tree

and check properties of parents of the window in question. That may also give you some hints about window origins.

But! While you may not find what process have created that window, there's still a way to find where that process have connected to X-server from. And that way is for real hackers. :)

The window-id 0x1600045 that you know with lower bits zeroed (i.e. 0x1600000) is a "client base". And all resource IDs, allocated for that client are "based" on it (0x1600001, 0x1600002, 0x1600003, etc). X-server stores information about its clients in clients[] array, and for each client its "base" is stored in clients[i]->clientAsMask variable. To find X-socket, corresponding to that client, you need to attach to X-server with gdb, walk over clients[] array, find client with that clientAsMask and print its socket descriptor, stored in ((OsCommPtr)(clients[i]->osPrivate))->fd.

There may be many X-clients connected, so in order to not check them all manually, let's use a gdb function:

define findclient
  set $ii = 0
  while ($ii < currentMaxClients)
    if (clients[$ii] != 0 && clients[$ii]->clientAsMask == $arg0 && clients[$ii]->osPrivate != 0)
      print ((OsCommPtr)(clients[$ii]->osPrivate))->fd
    end
    set $ii = $ii + 1
  end
end

When you find the socket, you can check, who's connected to it, and finally find the process.

WARNING: Do NOT attach gdb to X-server from INSIDE the X-server. gdb suspends the process it attaches to, so if you attach to it from inside X-session, you'll freeze your X-server and won't be able to interact with gdb. You must either switch to text terminal (Ctrl+Alt+F2) or connect to your machine over ssh.

Example:

  1. Find the PID of your X-server:

    $ ps ax | grep X
     1237 tty1     Ssl+  11:36 /usr/bin/X :0 vt1 -nr -nolisten tcp -auth /var/run/kdm/A:0-h6syCa
    
  2. Window id is 0x1600045, so client base is 0x1600000. Attach to X-server and find client socket descriptor for that client base. You'll need debug information installed for X-server (-debuginfo package for rpm-distributions or -dbg package for deb's).

    $ sudo gdb
    (gdb) define findclient
    Type commands for definition of "findclient".
    End with a line saying just "end".
    >  set $ii = 0
    >  while ($ii < currentMaxClients)
     >   if (clients[$ii] != 0 && clients[$ii]->clientAsMask == $arg0 && clients[$ii]->osPrivate != 0)
      >     print ((OsCommPtr)(clients[$ii]->osPrivate))->fd
      >     end
     >   set $ii = $ii + 1
     >   end
    >  end
    (gdb) attach 1237
    (gdb) findclient 0x1600000
    $1 = 31
    (gdb) detach
    (gdb) quit
    
  3. Now you know that client is connected to a server socket 31. Use lsof to find what that socket is:

    $ sudo lsof -n | grep 1237 | grep 31
    X        1237    root   31u   unix 0xffff810008339340       8512422 socket
    

    (here "X" is the process name, "1237" is its pid, "root" is the user it's running from, "31u" is a socket descriptor)

    There you may see that the client is connected over TCP, then you can go to the machine it's connected from and check netstat -nap there to find the process. But most probably you'll see a unix socket there, as shown above, which means it's a local client.

  4. To find a pair for that unix socket you can use the MvG's technique (you'll also need debug information for your kernel installed):

    $ sudo gdb -c /proc/kcore
    (gdb) print ((struct unix_sock*)0xffff810008339340)->peer
    $1 = (struct sock *) 0xffff810008339600
    (gdb) quit
    
  5. Now that you know client socket, use lsof to find PID holding it:

    $ sudo lsof -n | grep 0xffff810008339600
    firefox  7725  username  146u   unix 0xffff810008339600       8512421 socket
    

That's it. The process keeping that window is "firefox" with process-id 7725

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Welcome the the Unix and Linux Stack Exchange! Your answer to this question is excellent. I hope you come back to answer more questions. –  paraxor Jul 31 '13 at 0:00

xdotool didn't work for me. This did:

Run

xprop _NET_WM_PID

and click on the window.

This is based on the answer at http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-software-2/advanced-question-finding-pid-of-an-x-window-328983/

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Excellent, thanks! –  Andrew Schulman May 15 '13 at 8:16
    
Works for me when plugging in my Iphone brought up a non-responsive window prompt. –  Lucas Oct 17 at 5:43

I was able to use the xdotool under Ubuntu 11.04 beta, but selectwindow was not a valid command, I had to hack a script with:

$ while true; do sleep 1; xdotool getactivewindow; done

then watch the window ID go by while I selected the window I wanted, then decoded the responsible PID with:

$ xdotool getwindowpid <the-window-id>
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If you have xdotool installed, then

xdotool selectwindow getwindowpid

followed by clicking on the window in question will return the PID.

(There are other ways of selecting the window in question, e.g., if you have its window ID you can just do xdotool getwindowpid <number>. You can also select by name or class, etc.)

I do think this requires some playing nice on behalf of the WM. I haven't experimented much, or needed to.

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xdo_getwinprop(xdo, window, atom_NET_WM_PID, &nitems, &type, &size) ⇒ it's just a shell wrapper to read _NET_WM_PID (useful, but not what I asked for). –  Gilles Jan 6 '11 at 23:44
    
Exactly what I needed! Thanks! –  Ionică Bizău Jun 4 at 15:48

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