Comprehensive data on this topic is available from IDC, a large market-research firm that sells reports. As was mentioned earlier by Stefan Lasiewski and in the original question, there are a number of different ways to slice and dice server/desktop and raw operating system data.
A complicating factor for Linux in particular is the number of paid versus unpaid subscriptions in the market. Consequently, you are likely to find that market estimations will have a wide margin-of-error.
Given these facts, I would say that this question is unanswerable without further detail or specificity. In addition, all answers would be subject to debate on the rationale and methodology.